Category Archives: Volume 42 No. 2 (2020)

VOLUME 42 NO. 2 JULY – DECEMBER 2020

CONTENTS

Detection and molecular characterization of phytoplasma affecting vegetables in Eastern Visayas, Philippines

Lucia M. Borines, Joy Adeline C. Nuñez, Nickie D. Duero, Rezel Sagarino-Borines and Reny G. Gerona

Comparative DNA Analysis of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) palms with polyembryonic and monoembryonic origins

Daisy Jane A. Toting, Tessie C. Nuñez and Dilberto O. Ferraren

Application of Mitscherlich-Bray equation to formulate fertilizer recommendations for sweetpotato in Leyte, Philippines

Luz G. Asio and Nenita E. de la Cruz

Planktonic algae as bioindicators of water quality in Pagbanganan River, Baybay City, Leyte

Eunice Kenee L. Seriño and Beatriz S. Belonias

Qualitative traits and genetic characterization of native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) in selected areas of Eastern and Western Samar, Philippines

Cyrill John P. Godinez, Masahide Nishibori and Dinah M. Espina

Critical fermentation factors that influence the production of multiple bacteriocins of Enterococcus faecium NKR-5-3

Rodney H. Perez, Kohei Himeno, Takeshi Zendo and Kenji Sonomoto

Sensory quality of custard tart as affected by varying levels of Mabolo (Dispyros blancoi A. DC) Flesh

Loraine P. Baclayon, Julious B. Cerna and Lynette C. Cimafranca

Is there a market power in the Philippine rice industry?

Maria Hazel I. Bellezas, Jose M. Yorobe Jr., Isabelita M. Pabuayon, Prudenciano U. Gordoncillo and Antonio J. Alcantara Jr.

Understanding vaccine hesitancy among mothers: the case of a community hit by rubella outbreak

Rhea Jenny A. Ogalesco, Editha G. Cagasan, Christina A. Gabrillo and Milagros C. Bales

Characterization of charcoal produced from different Pyrolyzing techniques

Ma. Grace Curay, Abigail Joy Ching, Kazel Duran, Regine Mary Talingting and Sheila Balladares

Rootcrops processing waste management by Pyrolysis conversion

Ramon R. Orias

Reproduction performance of sows inseminated with stress gene-free semen given probiotic-supplemented feed

Julius V. Abela

Reproduction performance of sows inseminated with stress gene-free semen given probiotic- supplemented feed

Author: Julius V. Abela1*

ABSTRACT Submitted: 12 October 2019 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

This study generally aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with various levels of a novel product containing probiotic and yeast cells, a feed enzyme, short-chain oligosaccharides, and herbal extracts (Farmer Peck’s Performance Booster®) and the use of halothane free gene semen on two successive parities in sows in selected farms in Leyte. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with treatment used in T0 – (in-feed antibiotics, Og probiotic/kilogram feed and Al using semen from farm’s boar); T1 – (0 antibiotics, 2g probiotic/kilogram feed and Al with halothane free gene semen) and T2 – (0 antibiotics, 3g probiotic/kilogram feed and Al with halothane free gene semen). The study results showed that sow-litter performance of artificially inseminated sows using halothane free gene semen in two farrowing seasons was significantly higher in T1 and T2 groups than that of To group as affected by probiotic supplementation. Probiotic supplementation, both at 2g kg-1 (T1) and 3g kg-1 (T2) of feed is effective in improving both litter and sow performance. The cost of using halothane free gene semen for Al is less as compared to using semen from the farm’s boar, and the cost of using probiotic at two levels as feed additive is relatively lower than using antibiotics based on the pre-weaning mortality, litter size, and litter weight at weaning. The use of halothane free gene semen can now be widely used in the different piggery farms. Including the use of probiotic supplement for both the sows and piglets.

Keywords: probiotic supplementation, artificial insemination, halothane free gene semen, swine production


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):163-173(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr42212.2020
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Rootcrops processing waste management by Pyrolysis conversion

Author: Ramon Orias

ABSTRACT Submitted: 12 October 2019 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

The waste products derived from the commercial processing of root crops are the soiled peels, trimmings, root tissues, and by-products like pulp fibers obtained from the finishing operations. These bulky waste products create the management problems of safe storage and environmentally sound disposal.
Processing the wastes from cassava was found to be the most suitable for pyrolysis conversion from among the rootcrops considered. Results showed that, of the four (4) cassava waste forms, larger briquette was found to have the highest vinegar yield conversion at 1.842L per kg while the shred form had the lowest at 1.203L per kg. The rate of vinegar production was also fastest from the briquettes at 2.388L per h and lowest from the raw form at 1.544L per h. Better vinegar yields were therefore associated with solid fuel forms, smaller bed porosity, smaller surface reaction area, and lower gasification temperature. Other factors that also affected vinegar production were the loading rates, air supply conditions, and heat exchanger efficiency. In this study, the available Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) was only 45.67°C, indicative of poor performance of the exchanger unit. The heat exchanger unit’s design can be improved in future experiments by using good thermal conducting materials, reconfiguration, and increasing the conductor interface area. This should result in higher vinegar yields.

Keywords: Rootcrops, processing wastes, pyrolysis conversion, wood vinegar, flue gas temperature


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):149-162(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr42211.2020
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Characterization of charcoal produced from different Pyrolyzing techniques

Authors: Ma. Grace Curay1*, Abigail Joy Ching1, Kazel Duran1, Regine Mary Talingting1 and Sheila Balladares

ABSTRACT Submitted: 12 October 2019 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

Different pyrolyzing techniques are assumed to yield products with different content and adsorption rate. This study aimed to characterize five coconut charcoal samples from different pyrolyzing techniques such as Drum Kiln, Pit Method, Top Lift Updraft Method for TLUD – Top Sample & TLUD – Bottom Sample, and Hookway Retort to determine the best production method that will yield a quality of charcoal suitable for adsorption applications. Proximate analysis and adsorption kinetic studies were done to characterize and determine the rate of adsorption. Charcoal samples were ranked based on the following criteria and weights: 70% for adsorption capacity, 20% for fixed carbon, and 10% for the volatile matter. High adsorption capacity, high fixed carbon, and low volatile matter are good charcoal qualities for adsorption. For proximate analysis, ASTM Methods (ASTM D3302, ASTM D3175-17, ASTM D3174-12, ASTM D3172-13) were used. Experimental data showed that fixed carbon content of charcoal samples from Drum Kiln, Pit Method, TLUD-Top, TLUD-Bottom, and Hookway was 54.63%, 56.84%, 64.77%, 45.85%, and 56.59% respectively; while 30.69%, 31.65%, 20.65%, 43.39%, and 24.13% respectively for the volatile matter. For adsorption kinetic studies, optimization was done using Box-Behnken design with initial concentration, adsorbent dose, and pH as factors. The Hookway sample was subjected to optimization, where its optimum conditions were used for the rest of the charcoal samples. The experimental data for the adsorption kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second-order exhibited the best fit for all the charcoal samples. The coefficient of determination for charcoal samples from Drum Kiln, Pit Method, TLUD-Top, TLUD-Bottom, and Hookway Method are 0.9253, 0.944, 0.7267, 0.9885, and 0.9216. Applying the weights, the best charcoal sample is from Kiln, followed by Pit, TLUD-Bottom, TLUD-Top, and Hookway. Production temperature, pressure, and humidity could be employed in future studies to determine what affects the quality of charcoal during pyrolysis.

Keywords: Proximate Analysis, adsorption kinetic, charcoal, pyrolyzing methods


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):131-148(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr42210.2020
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Is there a market power in the Philippine rice industry?

Authors: Maria Hazel I. Bellezas1*, Jose M. Yorobe Jr.2, lsabelita M. Paduayon2, Prudenciano U. Gordoncillo2 and Antonio J. Alcantara Jr.3

ABSTRACT Submitted: 11 December 2018 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

Rice, as a staple food for the Filipinos, is widely studied from production to consumption. However, observations of the National Food Authority domestic procurement and price stabilization policy, as well as results of the marketing and market-related studies, still reveal some gaps which call forth for an in-depth investigation and analysis. One ofthese is the possible presence ofmarket power, a market inefficiency in rice. Hence, this study aimed to ascertain the presence of market power in the Philippine rice industry. Secondary data published by the Philippine Statistics Authority from 1990 to 2015 were utilized. A structural econometric model using a time series approach was used in estimating the presence of market power. Results revealed the presence of market power in non-major rice-producing regions for well-milled and regular-milled rice in major rice-producing areas. The more the demand curve becomes inelastic the more the market power becomes apparent. The price elasticity of demand in the non-major rice-producing regions is -0.63 for both well-milled and regular-milled rice and -0.83 and -0.59, respectively, in the major rice producing areas. To minimize, if not solve market power, a substitute staple for rice may be introduced, programs/policies that will encourage more palay traders may be implemented, and farmers may be trained to operate like industry clusters.

Keywords: Bresnahan-Lau model, Market inefficiency, Price elasticity of demand, Philippine rice industry


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):97-112(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4228.2020
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Comparative DNA Analysis of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) palms with polyembryonic and monoembryonic origins

Authors: Daisy Jane A. Toting1, Tessie C. Nuñez2 and Dilberto O. Ferraren3

ABSTRACT Submitted: 6 August 2018 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

Makapuno is a rare, high-value coconut in the Philippines known for its extraordinary thick gelatinous meat with various uses in the food industry. Homozygous makapuno embryos do not germinate in vivo so plantlets are produced in vitro. where one plantlet grows from an embryo. Rare cases of polyembryony were observed in makapuno hybrids developed bythe Visayas State University, Knowledge of the genetic control of polyembryony may be used to increase the production of planting materials of these rare coconut types.

DNA analysis of two sets of twins (polyembryonic), three monoembryonic hybrid palms, and their monoembryonic parental cultivars Coconiño and tall makapuno was done using seven DNA primers to determine differences which may be associated with polyembryony in the hybrids. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of PCR products showed DNA fragments amplified by primers CAC2 and CAC56 which are unique to the twins suggesting that polyembryony might have a genetic origin.

Keywords: Philippine Makapuno, Cocos nucifera L., polyembryony, twinning, DNA analysis


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):21-29(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4222.2020
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Understanding vaccine hesitancy among mothers: the case of a community hit by rubella outbreak

Authors: Rhea Jenny A. Ogalesco, Editha G. Cagasan2, Christina A. Gabrillo2 and Milagros C. Bales3

ABSTRACT Submitted: 1 October 2019 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

The Philippines has been implementing its Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) for over 40 years now. However, measles outbreaks are still reported. One of the reasons behind this is parental vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to understand conditions surrounding vaccine hesitancy among mothers in San Antonio, Northern Samar where rubella (German measles) outbreak was reported in 2017. A total of 1 6 mothers and three program implementers served as informants for this study. lt was found that despite the communication strategies used by the EPI program implementers, parental vaccine-hesitancy existed in the municipality. The mothers were considered vaccine-hesitant because of their delay in subjecting their children to measles vaccination. Analysis of the interview transcripts using the Grounded Theory approach revealed a number of conditions surrounding vaccine hesitancy among mothers. These include: (1) preoccupation with household responsibilities, (2) misunderstanding of the information on measles vaccination, (3) influence of social networks on vaccination decisions, and (4) negative perceptions about measles vaccination. The mothers’ hesitancy to subject their children to measles vaccination caused their children to be infected with the disease, and had resulted in an outbreak of rubella in the community. The rubella outbreak eventually led to vaccine uptake when parents realized the importance of
subjecting their children to vaccination and when the government implemented mandatory measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination.

Keywords: Vaccine hesitancy, MMR vaccination, vaccine uptake, EPI program, rubella, measles


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):113-130(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4229.2020
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Sensory quality of custard tart as affected by varying levels of Mabolo (Dispyros blancoi A. DC) Flesh

Authors: Loraine P. Baclayon1, Julious B. Cerna3 and Lynette C. Cimafranca2*

ABSTRACT Submitted: 1 October 2019 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

Mabolo (Diospyros blancoi A. DC) is an underutilized fruit in the Philippines. To add value and maximize the utilization of this nutritional fruit, the potential of mabolo for the production of highly saleable baked products, such as tarts, was explored. Specifically, the study aimed to formulate a custard tan filling with mabolo flesh as a flavorant using a single factor experiment arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Six levels of mabolo flesh (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, & 75% w/w) were used. The sensory attributes for color, taste, aroma, texture, flavor, and general acceptability, were evaluated. The optimum formulation of the tart filling was determined using Regression analysis.

Results showed that mabolo custard tart filling had yellowish-brown to brown color, moderately sweet to sweet taste, and soft to slightly fibrous texture. The mabolo fruit aroma and flavor in the tarts ranged from having none to perceptible. The Analysis of Variance revealed that different levels of mabolo flesh cause a significant effect on the color (p<0.01). The optimum formulation and the recommended level of mabolo flesh in custard tart filling production was 80.54% w/w.

Keywords: tart filling, mabolo, sensory evaluation, optimization, tart


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):85-96(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4227.2020
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Critical fermentation factors that influence the production of multiple bacteriocins of Enterococcus faecium NKR-5-3

Authors: Rodney H. Perez1,2, Kohei Himeno2 Takeshi Zendo2 and Kenji Sonomoto2

ABSTRACT Submitted: 17 February 2020 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are industrially important compounds that have been utilized as a safe food preservative replacing the potentially harmful synthetic chemical preservatives, Enterococcus faecium NKR- 5-3 is a novel LAB strain that produces five different bacteriocins‘ The critical fermentation factors, such as specific medium components and optimum incubation temperature that support the maximum production of multiple bacteriocins of strain NKR-5-3, were identified. Sucrose and yeast extract were found to be the preferred carbon and nitrogen sources for bacteriocin production of this strain, respectively. The highest bacteriocin production was observed when strain NKR-5-3 was incubated at 25°C. At incubation temperatures beyond 30°C, bacteriocin production was significantly reduced and completely ceased when further raised to 40°C, These findings possess remarkable practical implications as they can be vital in the future design of a cost-effective production system for these bacteriocins. Such a system would address the issue of the high production cost, which has remained the major barrier to the development of the large-scale industrial utilization of these important compounds.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, Enterococcus faecium, bacteriocin, multiple bacteriocin, bacteriocin production, fermentation factors


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):71-84(2020)
DOI:https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4226.2020
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Qualitative traits and genetic characterization of native chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) in selected areas of Eastern and Western Samar, Philippines

Authors: Cyrill John P. Godinez1*, Masahide Nishibori2 and Dinah M. Espina1

ABSTRACT Submitted: 10 January 2019 | Accepted: 9 January 2020

The Philippines has a number of chicken genetic groups, mostly of non-descript and indigenous type. In view of the need to expand the information on native chicken diversity, this study was conducted to identify distinct qualitative traits and estimate genetic diversity and relationship among native chicken populations in selected areas of Eastern and Western Samar, Philippines. A total of 100 native chickens were qualitatively analyzed using a non-parametric test, and 43 generated mtDNA sequences were used in the genetic analysis. Results revealed significantly different distributions of plumage color among male native chickens and shank color in female native chickens (p<0.05). The occurrence of plumage pattern, earlobe color and shank color for male native chickens and plumage color, plumage pattern, and earlobe color for female native chickens across Samar Island is not different (p>0.05). The genetic relationship showed 41.2% native chicken populations clustered to a group shared by Red junglefowl and native chicken, 29.4% clustered to a group closer to White Leghorn, and White Plymouth Rock chicken breeds, 17.6% clustered to a group shared by G. g. spadiceus and a commercial line, and 11.7% clustered to a group closer to Rhode Island Red and a commercial egg layer line. Samar native chickens had red (wild-type, e+) laced (lg) and brown (eb) pencilled (Pg) plumage in rooster and hen, respectively. The phenotypic and genetic information concluded that there is considerable diversity of native chickens in Samar, Philippines. There is a tremendous opportunity to work with larger sample size in the areas where a number of indigenous chickens have not yet been characterized.

Keywords: qualitative traits, genetic diversity, mtDNA, native chicken, Samar Philippines


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):52-70(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4225.2020
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