Category Archives: Volume 39 Supplement B (2017)

Engaging the local government in research & extension: the ACIAR-landcare experience in integrated crop management project

Author(s): Evy Elago-Carusos1*, Wendy Galero2 and Edwin Sardido3


Agricultural research and extension are important elements for improving agricultural production and food systems. It is said that the enhancement of traditional farming into science-based agriculture requires expeditious transfer of research results from laboratory to field. Agriculture extension was one of the services entrusted to local government from the national government during its decentralization in 1991. The basic premise was they can better design their extension services to best fit local needs because they know more of the local setting. It is a unique service that provides access to small rural poor farmers through non-formal education and information sources. That in turn helps these communities to increase productivity and income, alleviate poverty and improve food security.
The strategic research partnerships between local government, non-government organizations and academic researchers as an innovative mechanism to further define and facilitate extension service delivery are now increasingly recognized. This article provides the narrative of the experiences and lessons in bridging agricultural research and community practices through strategic involvement of the local government in research and extension. The discussion is based on the experience of Landcare Foundation of the Philippines (LFPI), a non-government organization, while implementing the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) Integrated Crop Management (ICM) Project in Bohol, Philippines.

Keywords: Agricultural Extension, Integrated crop management, Farmers Field School

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):208-220(2017)

Factors affecting profitability of small-scale vegetable production in the Visayas

Author(s): Annie D. Centes, Jessa H. Ruales, Rhena Jane Soria and Moises Neil V. Seriño1*


This study was conducted to assess the profitability of small-scale vegetable production in the Visayas, particularly in the islands Leyte, Samar and Bohol. The data used in the study was taken from baseline survey on vegetable production in the Visayas. Descriptive, correlation and multiple regression analyses were used in analysing factors that influence profitability. Results show that significant factors that affect profitability include cropping practices and market outlets. This suggests that profitability of small-scale vegetable production measured in terms of gross margins will tend to increase with the practice of multi-cropping and intercropping systems. With limited farm size, farmers can maximize the yield of vegetable production through intercropping and multi-cropping practice. In addition, primary market outlet affects profitability implying that better access to market translates to higher profitability. Results of the study suggest that to improve profitability of farmers in Leyte, Samar and Bohol, policy makers, researchers and technician should focus on optimizing cropping system. Farmers should be trained to identify vegetables that produces better yield in an intercropping and multi-cropping system. This should also be complemented with better access to market. Farm to market road should be improved so that farmers can easily link their production to the market.

Keywords: profitability, market access, vegetable farmers, cropping system

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):194-207(2017)

Investment appraisal and risk assessment of protected vegetable cultivation under Leyte conditions

Author(s): Therese C. Ratilla and Moises Neil V. Seriño1*


Protected cropping technology has been introduced to address the inability of farmers to achieve a successful year-round vegetable production. However, small scale farmers are reluctant to adopt this technology due to huge investment costs and the risk associated with extreme weather conditions. Hence, this study was conducted in some parts of Leyte, to evaluate the profitability and assess the risk of protected and open-field cultivation during the occurrence of extreme weather conditions such as tropical cyclones and strong wind phenomena. Results show that protected cultivation generates higher yields compared to open field cultivation. In Baybay site, investment on steel-type high-strength-tunnel covered with polyethylene plastic is the most viable option as it attained the highest net present values (NPVs), benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) and internal rate of return (IRRs). It also has the earliest payback period across different climatic scenarios. At the Cabintan site, the low-tunnel-structure is the most viable when a high-end market is established. This implies that market outlet is one of the critical factors affecting profitability and pricing. Given the potential of protected cultivation in minimizing crop failures, it is recommended that the government and private sector shall extend financial and technical assistance to farmers. Investors shall be covered with crop and structure insurances as risk of crop failures and loss of capital is high during inclement weather conditions.

Keywords: vegetable production, profitability, risk analysis, extreme weather condition

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):174-193(2017)

Growth and yield response of lettuce and tomato grown under drip and manual irrigation

Author(s): Nelda R. Gonzaga1*, Sarah Lyn A. Pepito1, Renan P. Octavio1, Apolinario B. Gonzaga Jr1 and Gordon S. Rogers2


Although there are new and innovative irrigation techniques available locally in Mindanao (Southern Philippines), growers still rely on the traditional method – manual irrigation. The study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation method on the performance of lettuce and tomato. The study was laid out in factorial arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with different irrigation method (manual & drip) as treatments replicated three times. In tomato, drip irrigation produced larger fruits (polar & equatorial measurement), highest number of marketable fruits, and highest yield per hectare. While in lettuce, it resulted in larger crown size (polar measurement), highest marketable yield per plant and per hectare. The study suggests that drip irrigation could improve the present farming situation in Mindanao, considering its potential to sustain farming during times of climatic uncertainty. Thus, further trials are required to verify its effects before introduction throughout the region.

Keywords: AVTO 1173 genotype, drip irrigation, improve yield, manual irrigation, Romaine variety

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):168-173(2017)

Performance and water usage of selected vegetables grown with different irrigation systems under house-type structures

Author(s): Jessie C. Rom1, Zenaida C. Gonzaga1*, Othello B. Capuno1, Ana Linda G. Gorme1, Warren L. Obeda1, Sandra McDougall2, Adam D. Goldwater3 and Gordon S. Rogers3


Irrigation for vegetables grown under protected cropping is very important for optimum production. Likewise, choosing an efficient method of irrigation can save water and labour. These studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of manual sprinkler, drip bottle, and drip hose method of water delivery systems on performance of selected vegetables, water use efficiency and profitability grown in house-type protective structures. The three crops tested were tomato, sweet pepper and ampalaya which were planted in similar structures arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. The drip bottle method increased yield, irrigation water use efficiency, and profitability compared to sprinkler and drip hose method. Drip hose method effectively suppressed fusarium wilt. This implies that increasing productivity of some vegetables requires water delivery systems that provide a constant and even supply using a small amount of water. Further work is required in scheduling and rate of application with the drip hose method for it to become as efficient as the drip bottle.

Keywords: Income, evapotranspiration, UV treated, solanaceous, cucurbit, recycled bottles

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):157-167(2017)

Growth and yield of non-grafted and grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars grown in two cultivation systems

Author(s): Zenaida C. Gonzaga1*, Lester F. Legaspi1, Lucia M. Borines1, Othello B. Capuno1, Jessie C. Rom1, Ana Linda G. Gorme1, Sandra McDougall2, Adam D. Goldwater3 and Gordon Rogers3


Tomato is a high-value vegetable crop because of its broad culinary uses and nutritional values. Its production however is inhibited in some areas with soil-borne disease problems, particularly bacterial wilt. This study was conducted to evaluate the yield, bacterial wilt infection, and profitability of non-grafted and grafted tomato cultivars planted in open field and protected cultivation. Protected cropping of tomato increased number of marketable fruits and total yield by approximately 2 times fold than those grown in open field. Grafting of the cultivars to eggplant significantly reduced bacterial wilt infection such that increased survival among plants resulted to higher yield than non-grafted. The cultivar with biggest fruits was from ‘Kingkong’ while season red had the smallest and other cultivars were in average size of the two. Grafted ‘Diamante max’ cultivar yielded the highest followed by ‘Season red’. Net return of protected cropping tomato was higher than in open field. Non-grafted tomato grown in bacterial wilt infected area was unprofitable. On the other hand, grafting and protected resulted in better yield, gross income and a positive net return. Season red produced the highest income in the open field while Diamante max for protected cultivation. The use of grafted tomato and protective structure are strongly recommended for planting in areas known to have high bacterial wilt.

Keywords: Ralstonia solanacearum, nightshade family, rain shelter, tolerance, semi-determinate, cleft grafting

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):144-156(2017)

Growth and yield performance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa Linn) under protected and conventional cultivation

Author(s): Nelda R. Gonzaga1*, Sarah Lyn A. Pepito1, Renan P. Octavio1, Apolinario B. Gonzaga Jr1 and Gordon Rogers2


Protected cultivation is not widely used in the Philippines, despite its known benefits, because of lack of uptake by farmers who have not seen the benefits demonstrated in their region. Furthermore, lettuce can be a difficult crop to grow in the Philippines, where heavy rains can damage the delicate leafy crop. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of different lettuce varieties when grown under protected structures that prevent rain entry. The study was laid out in split-plot arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with cultivation system (protected cropping & open field) as the main plot while the lettuce variety (leafy-type & head-type) as the sub-plot, replicated three times. The protective structure enhanced crown size, increased yield and produced healthier plants with reduced incidence of disease. Leafy-type obtained the largest crown size and head-type was less affected by disease in the first cropping. The study suggested that protective structures can be an asset in the enhancement and sustainability of lettuce production in preventing further damage on crops due to excessive rainfall and wind but would not be profitable when use during warmer months.

Keywords: crown size, head-type lettuce, leafy-type lettuce, lessened diseases, protective cropping

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):137-143(2017)

Increasing pechay (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) production through suitable seedling establishment under two cultivation systems in the Southern Philippines

Author(s): Zenaida C. Gonzaga1*, Othello B. Capuno1, Marina A. Labonite2, Eugenia de Asis Lonzaga3, Nemisio Francisco M. Napuran3, Aiselyn A. Sarco1, Ana Linda G. Gorme1, Jessie C. Rom1, Hubert B. Dimabuyu1, Dennis B. Jomoc2, Julie Carme G. Estillore2, Abegail B. Sentorias2, J. Villanueva3, Adam D. Goldwater4, Gordon S. Rogers4 and Sandra McDougall5


Seedling management is very important in leafy vegetable with short period of growing as it covers almost half of the production period. Pechay is considered a high value and a highly demanded leaf vegetable in the Philippines. These studies were conducted to determine the best method of raising pechay seedlings including direct seeding, seed box and seedling tray under two cultivation systems in different provinces of southern Philippines namely Bohol, Leyte and Samar. The studies were conducted in each province and data were consolidated and combined. Protected cultivation slightly manifested benefits on survival, root characteristics and yield except in Bohol where 3 times fold yield of plants under protective structure than open field. There was better survival and yield of using seedling tray. The unfavorable method was seed box in Bohol and Leyte while direct seeding in Samar as evident by low survival and yield. Among the three provinces in southern Philippines, Leyte produced the highest yield of pechay per unit area. This suggests that no similar method of raising seedlings was effective in different parts of southern Philippines.

Keywords: Brassicaceae, clod seedling, bare-root, low tunnel, net cover, leafy vegetable

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):129-136(2017)

Growth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as influenced by different soil organic amendments and types of cultivation

Author(s): Ana Linda G. Gorme1, Zenaida C. Gonzaga1*, Othello B. Capuno1, Jessie C. Rom1, Sandra McDougall2, Adam D. Goldwater3 and Gordon S. Rogers3


Tomato is one of the most profitable crops in the Philippines and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. However, its production faces different pest and disease problems, particularly bacterial wilt which greatly reduces yield. Two separate studies were conducted simultaneously in a single factor experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three (3) replications. The studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the different soil organic amendments on the growth and yield of tomato in the open field (Study I) and under protective structure (Study II) with the following treatments: control, cabbage waste, carbonized rice hull, chicken dung, hagonoy, wedelia, and wild sunflower. Protective structure grown plants had better protection against detrimental heavy rain and strong light intensity, thus had better performance in terms of lower bacterial wilt infection and weed incidence, higher percentage survival, enhanced flowering, and a higher yield than those grown in the open field. On the other hand, only the weight of marketable fruits and total yield were enhanced by the application of the different soil organic amendments. All amendments had similar effects but were superior than the control. Protected cultivation gave a higher net return than the open field. In particular, sunflower amended plants under structure were the most profitable, by almost 8 times compared to the open field.

Keywords: Bacterial wilt, Isothiocyanates, wedelia, devil weed, natural suppression

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):116-128(2017)

Performance of fresh market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill) lines as influenced by pruning

Author(s): Nelda R. Gonzaga1*, Apolinario B. Gonzaga Jr1, Sarah Lyn A. Pepito1 and Gordon S. Rogers2


Tomato production in the Philippines is dominated by conventional farmers who do not practice pruning. Currently, rampant occurrence of diseases almost wiped out the industry and availability of resistant seeds became a problem however several studies reported that pruning lessened diseases and enhanced yield. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of pruning on the performance of different fresh market tomato genotypes. The experiment was laid out in factorial design using Randomized Complete Block Design with pruning as Factor A and tomato genotypes as Factor B with Harabas (Harabas Rescuer 746) as control. Pruning obtained thicker stem and 18% higher fruit set, reduced Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and increased tomato yield by producing a higher number of marketable fruits. AVTO 1173 produced the heaviest and largest fruits with the least TYLCV. Pruning is a beneficial practice that farmers could adopt, along with AVTO 1173 as a substitute for the Harabas, check variety. Additional trials of AVTO 1173 should be conducted in different locations to further verify its adaptability and performance in other situations.

Keywords: Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus, AVRDC, AVTO 1173, disease resistance

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT B):108-115(2017)