Category Archives: Volume 39 Supplement A (2017)

Design, fabrication, and comparative evaluation of plant power shredder

Author(s): Feliciano G. Sinon1*, Alberto C. Martinez Jr.2 and Ruth B. Abadiano3


Fresh organic materials have to be shredded into smaller sizes to increase their decomposition rate. Hence, a plant shredder is necessary.
This study illustrates the importance of traditional or local knowledge to agriculture and natural resource management by providing households with adaptive strategies.
A plant shredding machine known as “Plant Power Shredder (PPS)” suitable for village-scale use was developed following the design criteria such as: portability, affordability, efficiency and versatility. The machine is 1.5mL×1.05m W×1.10m H, weighs 150kg and costs PHP75,000 (including 7hp Diesel engine). It is mounted in an angular bar framing fitted with 2 free-wheeling wheels to be pulled by a hand tractor. The prototype used combination of shear and impact forces through the combination of radially mounted blades and hammer-members.
Comparative evaluation of PPS was done with the RUMVD35000-16 and RUMVD35000-14 in terms of capacity, efficiency, fuel consumption, power-output ratio, sizes of shredded materials, percent decomposition of shredded output and break-even cost of each machine. Shredding was done on rice straw (RC 216), kakawate leaves and branches and dried coconut husk at three replications.
Results showed that PPS has the highest efficiency of 95.71%, lowest fuel cost of PHP57.17 per hour and PHP0.15 per kg, highest power to output ratio of 0.014hp per kg and lowest break even cost of PHP0.68 per kg. RU 14 has the highest capacity of 471.90kg per hour and has the greatest percentage of short-size shredded material of 70.94 %.

Keywords: shredder, organic, composting, compost, fertilizer

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT A):79-105(2017)

Rainforestation farming to rehabilitate marginal uplands: history of its development

Author(s): Victor B. Asio1*


Rainforestation Farming is a concept of rehabilitating degraded lands or restoring forests using native tree species. It was developed by Josef Margraf and Paciencia P. Milan of the Applied Tropical Ecology Project (Philippine-German Environmental Research Program), carried out by the Visayas State College of Agriculture (VISCA) and funded by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) from 1989 to 1999. In 2004, Rainforestation Farming was adopted as a national strategy by the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). After about 27 years, the concept has received wide acceptance by government and non-government organizations as well as the scientific community. The Institute of Tropical Ecology and Environmental Management (ITEEM), established in 1999, has been tasked to spearhead the promotion and dissemination of the concept to different parts of the country

Keywords: Rainforestation Farming, degraded lands, reforestation, native tree species

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT A):125-133(2017)

Soil erosion in the marginal upland of Inopacan, Leyte

Author(s): Faustino P. Villamayor1, Victor B. Asio1*, Arjay O. Lerios1, Luz G. Asio2 and Jessie R. Sabijon1


There is an urgent need for soil erosion data from marginal uplands in the country. This study evaluated the occurrences of soil erosion in the marginal uplands of lnopacan, Leyte. Field soil erosion indicators were assessed in different portions of the study site and erosion plots were established in the corn and sweetpotato fertilizer experiments to measure erosion rates. Field indicators of soil erosion such as rills, cracks across slopes, exposed rocks, thin surface soil and eroded sediments in waterways were common in various parts of the marginal upland studied. Soil erosion rates measured on erosion plots were higher from the corn field than from the sweetpotato field. Application of chicken manure and vermicast resulted in lower soil erosion rates due to improved soil structure. Plots without crop cover gave the highest erosion rates. The degree of soil erosion in the marginal upland can be considered as moderate to severe.

Keywords: soil erosion indicators, soil erosion rates, soil degradation

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT A):115-124(2017)

Traditional knowledge and natural resources management for agricultural production in the marginal uplands: the case of Brgy. Caticugan, Sta. Rita, Samar

Author(s): Jedess Miladel N. Salomon1*, Annabella B. Tulin2, Marciana B. Galambao3 and Michelle E. Gumba4


This study documented how people in an agricultural community cope with water scarcity. Through focus group discussions, household interviews, and observation, it attempts to understand how they make use of the available resources and traditional knowledge to make a livelihood. Thirty informants were involved in the study: six of which were tenants and twenty-four were landowners. Their agricultural practices were based on traditional beliefs and years of observation and experience on when to plant and how to ensure a bountiful harvest in conjunction with soil fertility and pest management. Preferred crops were those that were drought and pest resistant. Water scarcity was minimized through the use of balon, cemented deep well, water pumps, rainwater harvesting during the rainy season, and a reservoir. However, these could not supply enough for human consumption and agricultural production, especially during the dry season. Because ofthis, informants expressed the need for an irrigation system. This study illustrates the importance of traditional or local knowledge to agriculture and natural resource management by providing households with adaptive strategies. It is therefore important that this knowledge system be incorporated in the development and implementation of programs to improve the agricultural and economic productivity of farm households and the management of natural resources in the marginal uplands.

Keywords: agriculture, livelihoods, water scarcity

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT A):66-78(2017)

Postharvest handling intervention for banana var la tundan grown in marginal upland areas in Inopacan, Leyte

Author(s): Marcelo A. Quevedo1*, Arsenio D. Ramos2, Ness Marie Sta. lglesia1 and Kris Benzon V. Notarte3


The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of packaging materials for transport and simple storage techniques of banana fruits planted by the upland farmers of lnopacan, Leyte and to identify and introduce the suitable postharvest intervention for their adoption. The use of plastic crates and rattan basket significantly minimized bruises and scratches of banana fruits during transport compared to plastic sack. Providing lining materials further reduced these injuries during transport. As a result of minimal damage during transport, the shelf life was extended during storage at ambient condition. On the other hand, harvested banana fruits were not stored as these were directly sold to the market during market days (tabo) or directly bought by middle men from the farm. However, in some instances where there is a difficulty in transport due to impassable roads, farmers are obliged to keep the harvested banana for sometime in their homes or collection center. Banana var. ‘Latundan’ fruits in hands or in bunch stored using MAP (PE bags) with diffusion holes had better postharvest performance, particularly lesser weight reduction, extended ripening (based on peel color changes & firmness), lower incidence and degree of decay and acceptable sensory quality ratings. In contrast, fruits in MAP without diffusion hole had inferior postharvest behavior.

Keywords: marginal upland farmers, postharvest intervention, La’Tundan’ banana fruits, quality

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT A):55-65(2017)

Growth and yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) grown in the marginal upland area of Sta. Rita, Samar as influenced by different planting densities and mulching materials

Author(s): Zenaida C. Gonzaga1*, Warren L. Obeda2, Ana Linda G. Gorme3, Jessie C. Rom4, Oscar F. Abrantes Jr.5 and Othello B. Capuno6


Okra or Lady’s finger, botanically known as Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, is a tropical and sub-tropical indigenous vegetable crop commonly grown for its fibrous, slimy, and nutritious fruits and consumed by all classes of population. It has also several medicinal and economic values. Despite its many uses and potential value, its importance is under estimated, under-utilized, and considered a minor crop and little attention was paid to its improvement. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different planting densities and mulching materials on the growth and yield of okra grown in slightly sloping area in the marginal uplands in Sta. Rita, Samar, Philippines. A split-plot experiment was set up with planting density as main plot and the different mulching materials as the sub-plot which were: unmulched or bare soil, rice straw, rice hull, hagonoy and plastic mulch.
Planting density did not significantly affect the growth and yield of okra. Regardless ofthe mulching materials used, mulched plants were taller and yielded higher compared to unmulched plants. Moreover, the use of plastic mulch resulted to the highest total fruit yield. The results indicate the potential of mulching in increasing yield and thus profitability of okra production under marginal upland conditions.

Keywords: rice straw, rice hull, hagonoy, plastic mulch

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT A):44-54(2017)

Response of corn (Zea mays L.) to various organic-based fertilizers in marginal upland of Sta. Rita, Samar

Author(s): Berta C. Ratilla1*, Loreme S. Cagande2 and Othello B. Capuno3


Organic farming is one of the management strategies that improve productivity of marginal uplands. The study aimed to: (1) evaluate effects of various organic-based fertilizers on the growth and yield of corn; (2) determine the appropriate combination for optimum yield; and (3) assess changes on the soil physical and chemical properties. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design, with 3 replications and 7 treatments, namely; T0=(0-0-0); T1=1t ha-1 Evans + 45-30-30kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1; T2=t ha-1 Wellgrow + 45-30-30kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1; T3=15t ha-1 chicken dung; T4=10t ha-1 chicken dung + 45-30-30kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1; T5=15t ha-1 Vermicast; and T6=10t ha-1 Vermicast + 45-30-30kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1. Application of organic-based fertilizers with or without inorganic fertilizers promoted growth of corn than the control. But due to high infestation of corn silk beetle(Monolepta bifasciata Horns), its grain yield was greatly affected. In the second cropping, except for Evans, any of these fertilizers applied alone or combined with 45-30-30kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1 appeared appropriate in increasing corn earyield. Soil physical and chemical properties changed with addition of organic fertilizers. While bulk density decreased irrespective of treatments, pH, total N, available P and exchangeable K generally increased more with chicken dung application.

Keywords: chicken dung, corn, marginal upland, organic-based fertilizer, vermicast

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT A):31-43(2017)

Evaluation of different cropping systems for marginal uplands in Barangay Caticugan, Sta. Rita, Samar

Author(s): Ulysses A. Cagasan1*, Ed Allan L. Alcober2, Mark Gil B. Gerona3 and Gretchen Mae M. Prado4


To help improve the lives of upland farmers in Barangay Caticugan, Sta. Rita, Samar, there is a need to find ways to increase crop yield and income. This study aimed to determine cropping systems that improve crop productivity, increase income and promote cropping systems technology to upland farmers in Barangay Caticugan, Sta Rita, Samar. The experimental units were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The cropping systems tested were monocropping on corn, peanut and mungbean and intercropping corn + peanut and corn + mungbean. This paper considered only the data for one cropping planted during dryseason.
The growth and yield characteristics of all crops under study were not significantly (p<0.05) affected bythe cropping systems. Fresh herbage yield (t ha-1) and total yield (t ha-1) in all crops (corn, peanut & mungbean) and harvest index of peanut were significantly affected by the treatments. The significant variations on the said treatments were due to the difference in the plant population of monocultures and the intercrops. On the other hand, corn + mungbean gave a land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.16, which means that such practice is more productive than growing corn or mungbean as monocrop. Likewise, corn + peanut have an LER value of 1.20 which means corn + peanut intercropping system is more advantageous over monocropping.
Economic analysis revealed that monoculture of peanut and mungbean is the most profitable cropping system as it provides a relatively higher yield and net income.

Keywords: Cropping systems, growth and yield, land equivalent ratio

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT A):20-30(2017)

Properties of soils in the marginal upland of Sta. Rita, Samar, Philippines

Author(s): Kenneth Oraiz* and Victor B. Asio


The widespread occurrence of marginal uplands is a serious agricultural and ecological problem in the Philippines. The study evaluated the morphological and physico-chemical properties of soils in the marginal upland of Sta. Rita, Samar. Three soil profiles located at different physiographic positions were examined and sampled. Findings revealed that the marginal upland soils were derived from mudstone. They were characterized by an Ap-Bt-BC horizon sequence and they were clayey with moderate to high porosity and water holding capacity values. The soils were friable in their surface horizons when moist, but plastic and sticky when wet. The soils had pH(water) values ranging from 5.20 to 6.86, indicating that soil acidity was not yet a serious problem in these soils. The soils had moderate soil organic matter contents in their surface horizons but low amounts in subsurface horizons. Total N and available P of the soils were low and a problem for crop production. However, the soils had moderate to high exchangeable bases and cation exchange capacity values. In terms of degree of soil development, the marginal upland soils was observed to be mature as reflected by their horizonation, particularly by the presence of an argillic horizon (B horizon with high clay accumulation). But they still had high base saturation, suggestingthat they were not yet highly leached andthus, were classified asTypic Hapludalfs or Haplic Luvisols.

Keywords: marginal upland soils, mudstone, soil characteristics, Alfisols, Luvisols

Annals of Tropical Research 39(SUPPLEMENT A):1-19(2017)