Category Archives: Volume 38 No. 1 (2016)

Performance of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as Influenced by Time of Planting Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) as Intercrop

Author(s): Bonievic P. Sarcol and Ulysses A. Cagasan


One common approach to increase crop production is through multiple cropping systems. This study was conducted to (1) evaluate the growth and yield of peanut as influenced by time of planting sweetpotato as intercrop; (2) determine the appropriate time of planting peanut and sweetpotato that would give their respective optimum yields; and (3) determine the profitability of growing peanut in combination with sweetpotato as influenced by time of planting the crops in an intercropping scheme.
Results of the study showed that peanut’s maturity, leaf area index (LAI), number of seeds pod and number of pods plant were significantly (p<0.05) increased by the time of planting sweetpotato as intercrop. Sweetpotato planted later than peanut significantly (p<0.05) improved the number of lateral vines plant, length of main vine, and fresh herbage yield of sweetpotato. Yield and yield components and harvest index of sweetpotato were not significantly (p <0.05) affected by the time of planting the crops.
A net income of Php 66,508.00 was obtained from plots planted with peanut + sweetpotato regardless of time of planting. All intercropping treatments had a leaf area index (LER) of greater than one which means that peanut and sweetpotato are a good combination in an intercropping scheme compared to planting peanut as monocrop.

Keywords : Intercropping system, monocropping, land equivalent ratio, growth and yield, time of planting the crops

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):122-133(2016)

Energy Productivity and Efficiency of Lowland Rice (Var. PSB Rc18) Under Various Organic Nutrient Sources and Quantum Enhancers

Author(s): Berta C. Ratilla1 and Teodoro C. Mendoza2


Energy analysis is not usually given much emphasis in crop production despite the latter’s huge dependence on oil and fuel. This study was conducted for two cropping seasons to assess whether the use of various nutrient sources can increase yield, energy productivity, and use efficiency of lowland rice (PSB Rc18). All production inputs and activities were accounted and energy analysis was done using energy coefficients adopted by previous researchers. Parameters on grain yield, energy expenditures, energy productivity, efficiency, and intensity were taken. Rice applied with organic fertilizer from unenhanced composted cow manure (UECM) yielded significantly higher by 61% and 18% than the untreated control and the full inorganic treatment, respectively. Quantum and organic nutrient sources spent 69.18-71.79 liter diesel oil equivalent (LDOE) ha-1 which is 2-3 times lesser than the use of sole inorganic or combined with organic nutrient sources (142.13-225.74 LDOE ha-1), thus giving significantly higher energy productivity and efficiency. Unenhanced composted cow manure was the most productive and efficient in terms of energy use by 1.59 and 3.73 times over the control and full inorganic treatment, respectively. Energy spent to produce a ton of unmilled rice was markedly reduced by 53% from organic fertilization due to lower energy intensities (15.95-25.16 LDOE t-1 grain) than inorganic treatments (36.50-60.89 LDOE t-1 grain). Hence, at this time of energy crisis and climate change, organic farming which includes use of quantum enhancers is a potential option in improving energy resource effectiveness of PSBRc18.

Keywords : energy expenditure, productivity, efficiency and intensity, organic farming, and quantum enhancers

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):105-121(2016)

Traditional and Current Knowledge on the Utilization of Mahua (Madhuca latifolia L.) Flowers by the Santhal Tribe in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

Author(s): S. Behera1, R. C. Ray2*, M. R. Swain3, R. C. Mohanty,1 and A. K. Biswal4


Mahua (Madhuca latifolia L.) (also called as mahua) is a tree commonly found in mixed deciduous forests of Asian and Australian Continents, often growing on rocky and sandy soils. The various parts of this tree serve as food, feed, and medicine, thus form a part and parcel in the sustainability of livelihood of the tribal people. A study was conducted in 2009 among the people of Santhal tribe in Odisha, India to get information (traditional and current) on the uses of this tree species, particularly on its edible flowers. The study area concentrated in and around the deep forest pockets of Chandbill village of Bangiriposi Block on the northern border of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha. This tree species is found to substantially contribute to all sectors of tribal economy like food (flowers), beverage (flowers), and medicine (flowers, seeds and bark). Mahua flowers are fermented in to a distilled alcoholic beverage (country liquor, locally called “mahuli ”) in household and commercial scale. Mahuli, having an alcohol percentage of 30-40 %, is used as a supplement to rice as staple diet in their food habit.

Keywords : Alcoholic beverages, Mahua, Traditional knowledge, Tribal people.

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):94-104(2016)

A Review of Postharvest Treatments to Maintain Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Quality

Author(s): Luz Geneston Asio1,3 and Francisco D. Cuaresma2


Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a popular fruit in the international market due to its excellent flavor, attractive fragrance, taste and nutritional properties. However, it is highly perishable since it ripens easily after harvest and it is susceptible to postharvest diseases causing severe losses during storage and transport. The paper reviews the literature on the most important postharvest treatments to alleviate this problem which include the use of fungicides, hot water treatment, vapor heat treatment, controlled atmosphere, irradiation, wax coatings and biological control. The use of fungicides, hot water treatment, irradiation, and wax coatings appear to be the most widely used postharvest treatments.

Keywords : prochloraz, hot water and vapor treatment, controlled atmosphere, irradiation, wax coating, biological control

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):81-93(2016)

Performance of Irrigated Lowland Rice Grown at Different Spacing and Organic Fertilizer Levels Under Unflooded Water Management System During the Vegetative Growth Period

Author(s): Archie I. Baclayon1 and Alfredo B. Escasinas2


A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield performance of irrigated lowland rice variety “PSB Rc18” grown at different spacing applied with varying levels of organic fertilizer under unflooded water management system, and to evaluate the profitability of growing lowland rice using wide spacing adopting the System Rice Intensification (SRI) and organic fertilizer under unflooded water management system during the vegetative growth period.
Lowland rice can be productively grown under unflooded water management system during the vegetative stage using organic fertilizer at the rate of 15 t ha-1 at 40 cm x 40 cm planting distance. Application of 15 t ha-1 organic fertilizer enhanced heading and maturity and produced more productive tillers than the control. However, application of organic fertilizer applied at 15 t ha-1 resulted in lower net income ( Php 11,932.00) compared to 7.5 t ha-1 (Php 14,457.00) because of higher input cost. In this option, if the raw materials of producing organic fertilizers are available, and the farmers need not buy any of those, application at 15 t ha-1 is more profitable because of higher yield of 3.92 t ha-1 than at 7.5 t ha-1 with only 3.05 t ha-1.

Keywords : organic fertilizer, lowland rice, heading, Leaf area index, tillers

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):65-80(2016)

Formulation and Testing of Combined Organic Liquid Supplement from Trichoderma spp. and Fermented Plant and Seed Extracts on the Growth of Organic Pechay

Author(s): Ellen S. Romero, Lani Lou Mar A. Lopez, Fe L. Porciuncula, Purisima P. Juico, and Jonathan L. Galindez


The Ramon Magsaysay Center for Agricultural Resources and Environment Studies (RM-CARES) has isolated Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Trichoderma asperellum from carabao manure. Since Trichoderma is mass produced in solid form and applied basally, the conversion Trichoderma into liquid form allows the supply of nutrients at different growth stages of crops.
This study aimed to formulate and test the efficacy of combined organic liquid supplement (OLS) from Trichoderma spp. and fermented extracts from kakawate and malunggay leaves, banana fruits, soybean and mungbean seeds. Based on the results for one trial on pechay, undertaken in a certified organic area at the Ramon Magsaysay Center for Agricultural Resources (RM-CARES), Central Luzon State University Science City of Muñoz (CLSU), Nueva Ecija, yield was significantly increased by the supplementation of Trichoderma spp. in combination with fermented plant and seed extracts. Treatment with 1:0.5 ratio of T. asperellum: fermented plant and seed extracts significantly gave the highest computed yield of 12 t/ha which is 47% higher than the yield obtained in commercial OLS and 106% higher than the control. The treatment with 1:0.5 ratio of T.longibrachiatum: fermented plant and seed extracts, and treatment with commercial OLS produced comparable yield with 9.80 t/ha and 8.17 t/ha, respectively. Since the developed OLS from Trichoderma and fermented plant and seeds extracts is at par or even surpassed the yield of commercial OLS, it has the potential as bio-liquid fertilizer for organic pechay production which could be possibly substituted to commercial OLS.

Keywords : organic liquid supplement, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma asperellum, fermented extracts, bio-fertilizer, commercial OLS

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):53-64(2016)

Mineral Nutrition of Abaca (Musa textilis Née) Planted under Coconut and Rainforestation Production Systems

Author(s): Marlito M. Bande1,3, Victor B. Asio2, Joachim Sauerborn,3 and Volker Römheld4


The allocation of nutrients within the abaca plant is of interest, as it determines the amounts which may be removed from the farm, returned to the soil in dead plant part, and available for re-translocation to subsequent generations of suckers. Hence, the study was conducted to investigate the level of nutrition among abaca plants grown under diversified multi-strata agroecosystems and to understand the pattern of abaca nutrient uptake planted under coconut and Rainforestation production systems.
The allocation of nutrients within the abaca plant is of interest, as it determines the amounts which may be removed from the farm, returned to the soil in dead plant part, and available for re-translocation to subsequent generations of suckers. Hence, the study was conducted to investigate the level of nutrition among abaca plants grown under diversified multi-strata agroecosystems and to understand the pattern of abaca nutrient uptake planted under coconut and Rainforestation production systems.
In the abaca–coconut agroecosystem, results show that availability of macronutrients from different blocks demonstrates a high degree of significant differences (p≤0.01) within 0-30cm soil depth. These differences can be attributed to the history of land uses, farmer’s management practice and soil the type. On the other hand, it can be concluded that the trees planted under the Rainforestation system plays a significant role in the nutrient fluxes and the improvement of soil acidity. This is due to the fact that trees function as “nutrient-pumps”. Therefore, integrating abaca under the Rainforestation system is a best option.
Finally, it is not enough and safe to conclude that the low nutrient concentration in abaca leaves is due to low nutrient in the soil concentration solution since the standard values for abaca is still unknown. Thus, using the results for diagnosing nutrient deficiencies is insufficient.

Keywords : abaca-based agroecosystem, rainforestation, soil nutrient, critical nutrient concentration

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):36-52(2016)

Growth Performance of Abaca (Musa textilis Née) Integrated in Multi-strata Agroecosystems

Author(s): Marlito M. Bande1,3, Victor B. Asio2, Joachim Sauerborn,3 and Volker Römheld4


Abaca is a shade loving crop with a good potential to be integrated into agroforestry systems that offer sources of income and prevent soil erosion. However, in integrating abaca into multi-strata agroecosystems, one has to consider radiation interception and the efficiency with which radiation energy is used to produce photosynthates since play a crucial role in the growth of these tree-crop stands. Hence, this study investigate the best shade plant-abaca d combination and its influence on light transmission ratio in relation to the abaca’s morphological growth performance. The results revealed that the light intensity under the canopy shade of coconuts is sufficient for the growth of abaca plants. On the other hand, Rainforestation (the planting of native tree species to rehabilitate degraded lands) appeared to be an effective approach in restoring the functions of an abaca-based agroecosystem by improving soil quality suitable for the crop. Therefore, the tree-abaca under the Rainforestation system was the best combination. However, the sustainability of both production system always lies s on the hands of the farmers, either to cut or harvest the trees or old coconut palms for lumber or to preserve them for ecological purposes by providing shade and wind breaks for the abaca plants. Finally, due to high planting density in both types of abaca-based agroecosystems, fertilizer application and the use of high quality planting materials are highly recommended. Likewise, topography and exposure to strong winds should be considered during site selection prior to abaca-based production system development.

Keywords : abaca, agroecosystem, rainforestation, irradiance, shade crop

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):19-35(2016)

Distribution of Virus Symptoms and Viruses Infecting Field-Grown Cucurbit Crops Under Natural Tropical Conditions Within a Humid Rainforest Transition Agro-Ecology in Nigeria

Author(s): E.I. Ayo-John1, O.O. Odedara2, E.V. Loko1, F.D. Aworinde1, A.C. Tella2, I. G. Ogundare1,
A.M. Kelani1, J.O. Hassan1, J.O. Oladokun1 and O. B. Afolayan1


Farmers’ fields where cucurbit crops were grown in seven Local Government Areas (LGA) of Ogun state were surveyed in 2009 and 2010 for incidence and severity of virus symptoms and the identity of the viruses infecting the crops were determined using DAS-ELISA. Six viruses including Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) were indexed for in the leaf samples. A total of 14 farms were visited and 130 leaf samples were collected. The incidences of virus symptoms on the field were between 41.0 and 100.0% while the mean severity score were between 1 (apparently healthy) and 5 (severe symptoms and death) in some locations. The incidences of virus symptoms such as mottle, chlorosis and yellowing, mosaic, leaf distortion, puckering, vein banding and vein clearing were 20.0, 19.2, 18.5, 16.2, 11.5, 3.1 and 3.1%, respectively in the collected leaf samples. However, 8.5% of the leaf samples were apparently healthy. Serological analysis of the leaf sample showed the presence of ZYMV, PRSV, WMV, CMV, MNSV, and CGMMV. The most widely distributed virus was MNSV which occurred in 9 out of 14(64.3%)of the locations. This was followed by WMV and CGMMV occurring in 8 out of 14 (57.0%) of the locations. PRSV and CMV occurred in 50.0% of the locations. ZYMV occurred in 5 out of 14 (35.7%) of the locations. The viruses detected are among the viruses reported to limit the production of cucurbit crops world-wide.

Keywords : pumpkin, cucurbits, virus disease, survey watermelon, cucumber

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):10-18(2016)

Interpretation of Insecticide Posters by Rice Farmers In Selected Villages in Leyte, Philippines

Author(s): Dennis C. Cortes1 and Monina Escalada2


Farmers usually get pesticide information from different sources, such as radio, television, print ads, extension technicians, pesticide sales agents, other farmers, and their own experience. This study focused on rice farmers’ interpretation of insecticide use in outdoor print advertisements in selected rice growing provinces in Leyte, Philippines. One hundred farmers were individually presented with six insecticide posters and asked to give their feedback. A focus group discussion was also conducted to obtain more insights into the participants’ assessment of the poster’s ability to grab attention, their understanding of the message, perceived acceptability, and self-involvement. Packaging (insecticide bottle), images that connote power and strength such as boxing gloves, superman and the peso sign, slogan, color, and brand name were found to be attractive elements of the posters. Most respondents understood the message conveyed by nearly all posters. Only a few respondents found something offensive and untrue in the text and slogans used. Overall results of the study proved that insecticide posters were effective in encouraging unnecessary insecticide use. Focus group discussion results indicated that farmers had knowledge gaps and misconceptions of the posters’ message. For instance, they misconstrued that the posters encouraged them to use more insecticides when that recommendation was not in the posters. It appears that pesticide use has been well entrenched in the minds of farmers that a poster appears to be a trigger for insecticide use.

Keywords : Interpretation, pest management practices, insecticide posters, users’ feedback

Annals of Tropical Research 38(1):1-9(2016)