Category Archives: Volume 36 Supplement (2014)

Identifying Constraints and Opportunities for Improving the Health and Productivity Of Chickens Raised By Smallholder Farmers In The Marginal Upland Barangays Of Inopacan, Leyte, Philippines

Authors: Eugene B. Lañada and Dave D. Amihan


To identify constraints and opportunities for improving the health and productivity of chickens raised by smallholder farmers in the marginal uplands, a survey was carried out in 4 upland barangays of Inopacan, Leyte, involving questionnaire-interviews on smallholder chicken raisers. Data were gathered from randomly selected households during a single visit to each of these households using a structured data collection sheet. Descriptive and analytic work on the data was carried out, with modeling on 2 key performance indicators: chicken attrition rates and income levels from chicken production.
Results show that smallholder chicken raising in the uplands of Inopacan is typically a semi-scavenging system, with generally low productivity. Using epidemiological methods, 150 putative factors were examined for association with the 2 key performance indicators: overall chicken attrition (ATTRITION), and income from chicken production (INCOME). Of these factors, 13 and 29 variables were found to be associated (P<0.20), respectively, with ATTRITION and INCOME. Logistic regression analysis for ATTRITION revealed that feeding chickens while caged, giving rice as feed, and farmers’ practice of treating sick chickens proved highly significant in the model. Likewise, for INCOME, analysis revealed that 5 factors were highly significant in the model: selling chickens owned for profit, commercial feed given as chicken feed, copra making is a source of agricultural income, raiser is satisfied with the performance of his chicken flock, and amount of coconut given per flock per month. The implications of the results, and using the epidemiological approach in studying smallholder chicken productivity and health are discussed.

Keywords: Cross-sectional analysis, smallholder chicken systems, logistic regression model

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):278-296(2014)
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Participatory Assessment of Resources and Needs of Upland Communities: A Case in Inopacan, Leyte, Philippines

Authors: Milagros C. Bales1, Editha G. Cagasan2, Ma. Aurora Teresita W. Tabada3, Ma. Victoria Stephane G. Asio2,
Junette Dawn Baculfo3, Loren Gemali Flandez4, Arsenio D. Ramos5 and Warren D. Come6


Experiences of past projects show that interventions would more likely succeed if these are designed considering the needs and resources of the target beneficiaries. To achieve this end, participatory rural appraisals (PRAs) were conducted in three barangays of Inopacan, Leyte with marginal upland areas. The PRAs were participated by 64 community representing almost all sectors. Tools used residents in data gathering were seasonal calendar, historical timeline, Venn diagram, household labor allocation, household decision-making, livelihood analysis, and problem tree analysis. Results showed that residents’ main livelihood are farming and livestock raising. Major crops planted are coconut, corn, rootcrops, and banana; while animals raised include goats, swine, native chickens and carabaos. Due to limited water supply in the barangays, farmers have to depend on rainfed farming system. To augment family income, some women engage in backyard gardening, and in food processing and selling. Results also revealed that they have experienced problems like infertile soils, and Brontispa longissimi infestation which reduced productivity of coconut. The FGD participants expressed that many people in their locality need other livelihood options to supplement their unstable income from coconut. The livelihood activities that can be enhanced through trainings and technical assistance include farming, animal raising and food processing. Results have implication in planning for more sustainable resource-based management.

Keywords: Participatory, rural appraisal, upland barangays, community needs, livelihood options

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):259-277(2014)
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Sweetpotato (SP-30) Flakes: Process Optimization and Moisture Adsorption Isotherm Studies

Authors: Julie D. Tan, Daniel Leslie S. Tan and Adrian C. Alumbro


Sweetpotato is one of the predominant crops grown by local farmers in the marginal uplands of Brgy. Linao, Sitio Batuan, Inopacan, Leyte. The need to produce quality food products from sweetpotato is a continuing challenge to open new opportunities for farmers and entrepreneurs alike. This study aimed to determine the potential of sweetpotato var.SP30 for flake production and conduct moisture adsorption isotherm studies. Two screening processes were made using the 7-variable 8-run Plackett-Burman design while a face centered Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed during optimization. Sensory evaluation results were subjected to response surface regression (RSREG) analyses to generate optimum processing condition(s). Moisture adsorption studies were carried out to determine the nature of the product isotherm based on Brunauer-Deming-Deming-Teller (BDDT) classifications. Fitting of data was done using the Bruanauer-Emmettand Teller(BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson de Boer (GAB) models to determine the amount of adsorbed moisture in the product during storage at different temperature levels.
Screening results identified Drying time (Dt), Drying Temperature (DT) and Oven Toasting time (OTt) as the critical processing variables. A set of combinations of Dt (min.), DT (°C), and OTt (min.) were generated as a result of the optimization. These combinations were 75-50-20, 80-50-20, 80-50-18, 85-50-20 and 90-50-20. Calculated values for the mass fraction of adsorbed water in the monolayer (WmB and WmG) at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C are 0.0971, 0.1311, 0.0591 and 0.1046, 0.2447 and 0.2224 respectively (expresseding/100gH2O)
Sweetpotato (var. SP30) was found suitable for flake production. Moisture adsorption isotherm of sweetpotato flakes was sigmoid in shape and classified as type II in the BDDT classification. Wm values for both BET and GAB were found to follow the relationship WmB < WmG (Timmerman,2003).

Keywords: sweetpotato flakes, variable screening, optimization, moisture adsorption

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):240-258(2014)
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Fabrication and Evaluation of a Solar Dryer Made From Twin-Wall Clear Polycarbonate Sheets

Authors: Daniel Leslie S. Tan1 and Benjamin L. Cinto, Jr2


This study evaluated the newly designed and fabricated solar dryer based form the following design criteria 1) made of locally available materials, 2) easy to maintain and low maintenance cost, 3) portable, 4) products to be dried should not be exposed to rain and foreign elements (should be clean), and 5) able to dry faster than sun drying method. A solar dryer was fabricated and made mainly of twin-wall polycarbonate sheets with angle bar framing, with 3 layers of removable aluminum screen trays with aluminum framing. It has 3 solar heat collectors that provided additional heat to the drying chambers. Results of the evaluation showed that the maximum average drying temperature attained in the chambers of the solar dryer was 67.6⁰C or an increase of 32.2⁰C from the average highest average outside temperature of 35.4⁰C. When the solar heat collectors were removed, the solar dryer was able to attain an average maximum temperature of 57.5⁰C or an increase of 24.5⁰C from an average outside temperature of 33.0⁰C. When evaluated to dry fresh saluyot (Corchorus olitorius L) leaves (Initial MC of 89.58%) and sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) tops (Initial MC of 94.50%), the solar dryer in 2.33 hours reduced the moisture content, wet basis, of the to an average saluyot of 26.54% as compared to the sun drying method which reduced it to an average of 47.14% The performance of the dryer will be evaluated further using other available products in the uplands.

Keywords: Fabrication, solar dryer, polycarbonate sheets

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):230-239(2014)
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Research Note: Nutrient Evaluation of Compost and Vermicast Produced Through On-site Production Technique

Authors: Feliciano G. Sinon and Mark D. Atanasio


This study, evaluates the process flow of nutrient from raw materials to compost to vermi fertilizer, and to assess the possibility of on-site organic fertilizer production technique.
Four different types of weeds such as Cogon (Imperata cylindrica), Hantutuknaw (Melastoma malabaticum), Hagunoy (Chromolaena odorata) and Bugang (Saccharum spontaneum) were collected in the project site of Guinsangaan, Inopacan, Leyte. These were shredded (using the mobile Plant Power Shredder) and placed inside a 1 m × 1 m × 1 m black plastic screen (9 mesh per cm2). The materials were allowed to decompose simulating the field condition. A 3/7 parts of chicken manure, 3/7 parts of soil taken from the project area and 1/7 parts of the compost were mixed together inside the screen container (approx ½ m3 mixture). Three hundred grams of night crawler vermi were placed inside the container with the mixture. Each plastic screen was also placed inside the bin with silk screen (approx 200 mesh) bottom which were laid flat in the shaded and moist area.
The temperatures inside the bin ranged from 23֯C to 30֯C which were conducive for the growth of the worms. The Night Crawler thrived and grew in the open field condition — the weight of the stocked worms increased by 3.33% to 16.67%.
NPK contents of the vermicast from the different bedding materials were more or less similar, although initially, these were obviously different. Hagonoy composts which was abundant in the marginal uplands was 2.5% higher in N compared to Cogon, Bugang and Hantutuknaw.

Keywords: organic fertilizers, vermicomposting, on-site, night crawler vermiworms, NPK

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):220-229(2014)
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Livestock production systems in the marginal upland and lowland areas of Inopacan Leyte, Eastern Visayas, Philippines

Authors: Warren D. Come and Philippine Dianne Zamora


The study was conducted to obtain a baseline data of different livestock production systems, vegetation survey and animal environment interactions in the marginal upland in Eastern Visayas. A total of 280 farmer respondents were interviewed using an interview questionnaire. Vegetation species were gathered and validated with its genus and species group. Animal environment interactions particularly with chicken were also assessed. Results showed that chickens were the dominant species present in the study sites compared to other species. But in terms of total livestock units (TLU), buffaloes have higher TLU compared to other species of animals. Farmer’s income is mostly from the agricultural income with less than 20% of agricultural income was obtained from livestock farming. Livestock only serves as buffer income incase crops will fail. Different husbandry systems are used by the farmers such as free range system for chicken, ducks and turkeys while pigs are raised in confinement or caged system. Ruminant productions are raised in a tethering system of production. Natural breeding practice is still practiced by farmers and traditional animal health practices are still evident in this marginal upland. Ruminants graze in different vegetation diversity in grasslands and under the coconut trees. Likewise, plant residues of banana, coconut and root crops are also used as feed resources of farmer respondents. Grass and herb species that are palatable to the animals are diverse also especially in grassland areas. Availability of feed resources in the area plays a crucial role also on how animals interact with the environment and may affect also with their feeding behavior when there are changes in the climatic conditions. Preliminary result of the study on animal environment interaction shows that chickens tend to change their feeding itineraries due to availability of feed resources, environmental temperature and rainfall.

Keywords: livestock production systems, vegetation, animal-environment interactions, marginal uplands,traditional animal health

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):199-219(2014)
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Field Trial on the Effects of Homemade Probiotics and Sweet Potato Silage Supplementation on Sows Productivity and Profitability in the Marginal Upland Area in Inopacan, Leyte

Authors: Julius V. Abela, Alberto A. Taveros and Bryan Rebuyas


This study is part of the big CHED-Phernet program on “Enhancing Farm Productivity and Environmental Quality in Climate Change Vulnerable Marginal Uplands of Eastern Visayas. An incomplete randomized block design was used in control field trial was conducted from May 2013 to December 2013 involving 9 sows in Guinsangaan, Linao, and Marao Inopacan, Leyte. Homemade liquid probiotics and sweetpotato silage were given to the treatment group. The sows performance on the average litter size born/Average littersize at weaning for T0 (commercial feeds) was 9.33/6.33 hds., while T1 (commercial feeds + 20 ml HMP) was 11.0/10.33 hds, and T2 (commercial feeds + 20 ml HMP + crop-silage by-products @ 0.10% BW on DM basis) 9.67/8.67 hds, and the average weaning weight for T0 = 8.61kg, T1 = 01 9.23 kgs, and T2 = 8.35kgs, respectively. However,the total number of weaned piglets for each treatment resulted to a significant profitability (given the price per weanling equivalent to Php 2,000 per head) of the treatment assigned to sows productivity performance based on these results T0 = 19 hds (Php 38,000.00), T1 = 31 hds (Php 62,000.00), and T2 = 26 hds (Php 12 48,000.00). The introduction of crop-silage plus HMP technology increases the productivity of the sows and likewise, increases the profitability in terms of peso income after weaning the piglets of marginal upland area pig raisers.

Keywords: Crop-Silage – this is a by-product of sweet potato matured vines/remains after harvesting the rootcrop. The SPMV was subjected to fermentation process called Silage.

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):191-198(2014)
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Chemical Composition and In Situ Digestibility of Common Feed Resources for Ruminants in Marginal Uplands

Authors: Lolito C. Bestil, Angelo Francis F. Atole, and Jandells M. Rama


This study assessed the chemical composition and degradation of in situ predominant feed resources for ruminants in the marginal uplands of Inopacan,Leyte, Philippines. These feed resources included basal grasses such as guinea (Panicum maximum), humidicola (Brachiaria humidicola), and carabao grass (Axonopus compressus); supplemental legumes such as calopo (Calopogonium muconoides), madre de cacao (Gliricidia sepium) and centro (Centrocema pubescens); foliages of trees/shrubs such as jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophylum Lamk) and abgaw (Premna odorata); and concentrates such as rice bran (D2) and squeezed grated coconut. Chemical analyses followed standard procedures, while trial was done by in situ incubating the feed samples in rumen-cannulated steer fed 70% basal/grass and 30% of the supplements.
Crude protein (CP) contents were 15.83 to 18.23% in legumes,10.17 to 11.91% in tree foliages, 5.16 to 8.51% in grasses, and 4.84 to 6.08% in concentrates on as-fed basis. Gross energy (GE) contents were high–5097kcal/kg in grated coconut (highest) and 2931 kcal/kg in humidicola grass (lowest). Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents were low, ranging from 0.004 to 0.189% Ca and 0.026 to 0.037% P. Considering animal requirements, these indicated a potential adequacy in GE supply but a limitation in protein and Ca and P in marginal uplands. Dry matter degradation (DMD) was high in grated coconut, abgaw, calopo and madre de cacao (77.86 to 86.51%) among the supplements and in carabao grass (71.11%) of the basal, and low in humidicola and rice bran D2 (46.52 to 47.51%). Crude protein degradation (CPD) was highest in abgaw, calopo, madre de cacao, jackfruit and grated coconut (86.87 to 90.97%), moderate in guinea and carabao grasses and rice bran D2 (61.28 to 64.01%), and low in centro and humidicola (57.46 to 59.63%). Quantitatively, and across chemical composition and in situ degradation, the feeding of humidicola grass, centro legume, and rice bran D2 is least recommended.

Keywords: marginal upland, feed resources, chemical composition, in situ degradation

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):179-190(2014)
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Increasing Productivity of Malabar Spinach (Basella alba L. and Basella rubra L.) Grown in the Marginal Upland Area of Inopacan, Leyte Through Different Mulching Materials

Authors: Zenaida C. Gonzaga1, Hubert B. Dimabuyu1, Richielda R. Sumalinog1 and Othello B. Capuno2


Basella or malabar spinach locally known as alugbati is a tropical leafy, indigenous vegetable commonly grown for its succulent, nutritious, and tender stems. It has also a number of medicinal applications. Despite its many uses and potential value, its importance is under estimated. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different mulching materials on the growth and yield of two Basella species grown in a rolling soil in the marginal uplands of in Inopacan, Leyte. A factorial experiment was set-up with Alugbati species/varieties as the main plot factor and the different mulching materials as the sub-plot. Treatments were: T0 – control, T1- rice hull, T2 – rice straw and T3 – plastic mulch.
Basella alba, the green-stemed alugbati had significantly bigger stems, greater number and heavier shoots than the red-stemed Basella rubra. Leaf spot disease caused by Colletotrichum sp. was more evident in B. rubra. Regardless of the mulching materials used, mulched plants yielded higher than the unmulched plants or those planted in bare soil. Moreover, the use of silver plastic mulch resulted to the highest total yield. The results indicate the high potential of mulching in increasing the yield and thus the profitability of alugbati production.

Keywords: Alugbati, Basella alba, Basella rubra, plastic mulch, rice hull, rice straw

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):166-178(2014)
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Arthropods Associated with Corn Planted in the Marginal Uplands of Inopacan, Leyte

Authors: Maria Juliet C. Ceniza and Rosalyn B. Borines


A study was conducted to assess and identify the arthropods associated with corn planted in the marginal uplands of Inopacan, Leyte, using pan trap and sweep net methods, done biweekly during the two cropping periods. Two major groups of arthropods were recorded which included the Arachnids and the insect group, consisting of nine (11) orders of insects represented by 59 insects species and 20 spiders. These arthropods belonged to phytophagous groups (chewing and sucking arthropods); natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) and the innocuous groups or considered “others” (scavengers and saprophagous)

The most abundant insect pest species in corn were the Chrysomelidae and Scarabaeidae beetles, while leafhoppers (Homoptera) were moderately abundant in the crop. The predators were mostly ants (Hymenoptera), the spiders (Arachnids), and coccinellid beetles. The parasitoids included the braconid, ichneumonid, and chalcid wasps. The most abundant non-pest and innocuous species are the Dipterans which are potential hosts or prey of the biotic agents in the corn ecosystem.
The abundance of pest species in corn is not yet alarming, which indicates that the pests are not attracted to the crops which were marginal in growth. The natural enemies were also occurring in moderate numbers adequate to suppress abundance of pest species. However, from the results, the corn planted in the marginal upland with chicken dung was observed to have the higher number of insect associations than the other treatments.

Keywords: Arthropods, Marginal Uplands

Annals of Tropical Research 36(Supplement):154-165(2014)
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