Category Archives: Volume 29 No. 3 (2007) (Smallholder Forestry Special Issue)

Most Significant Change Experienced by Farmers from Adopting Rainforestation Farming

Author(s): Genie Leen M. Velarde, Rotacio S. Gravoso, Editha G. Cagasan and Christina A. Gabrillo


The Visayas State University (VSU) developed the rainforestation farming (RF) system to replace the more destructive forms of kaingin or slash-and-burn practices commonly practiced by farmers and provide them with a stable and higher income. VSU disseminated the technology through training and establishment of demonstration farms coupled with various extension materials. The most important changes experienced by farmers from adopting RF were increase in income, greater social skills, improvement of their water and air conditions, and enhancement of biodiversity in their rainforestation farms.

Keywords: project impacts, technology adoption, tree farmers, participatory monitoring and evaluation, Leyte

Annals of Tropical Research 29(3):109-122(2007)

The Contribution of Farm Products to Farmer’s Livelihood and Household Consumption in Leyte, the Philippines

Author(s): Carol A. Neal


This paper describes the agroforestry farming systems through which crops, trees and small farm animals are produced and consumed by three farming families on Leyte Island, the Philippines, and the extent to which they contribute to the farmers’ livelihoods and wellbeing. A survey using semi-structured personal interviews was carried out to obtain data on cost savings of farm grown products consumed, health benefits derived and costs incurred in managing and maintaining each farm. There were notable differences in crop-tree arrangement and management methods used by the farmers. An estimate of the amount of product that was consumed by the households was conditional on crop choices and intensity of effort and inputs and offsets from off-farm income. Informal arrangements for bartering food, and coconut and bamboo product sharing for community use, made precise valuation of these products difficult, but comparative values against local market prices were placed on marketable produce. Labour and other inputs between the farms varied widely, depending on the type of product. In addition to crops grown as a source of income, portions of farm products were grown specifically for home consumption, and some non-consumable products were exchanged between households. The farmers had a basic understanding of the nutritional value and health benefits of all the food products they consumed for daily energy, health and medicinal purposes. They also believed that consuming their own farm-grown produce generated savings compared with quality and value of the same product from the local markets.

Keywords: agroforestry farming systems, food quality, livelihood, nutritional value, savings benefits

Annals of Tropical Research 29(3):91-108(2007)

Biomass Equations for Tropical Tree Plantation Species in Young Stands Using Secondary Data from the Philippines

Author(s): Ma. Regina N. Banaticla1,3,4, Renezita F. Sales1 and Rodel D. Lasco2,3


Estimation of the magnitude of sinks and sources of carbon requires reliable estimates of the biomass of forests and of individual trees. Equations for predicting tree biomass have been developed using secondary data involving destructive sampling in plantations (mostly less than 10 years of age) in several localities in the Philippines. These equations allow estimates of carbon sequestration to be made at much lower cost than would be incurred if detailed stand inventories were undertaken. The species included in the study reported here include Gmelina arborea Roxb., Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen Swietenia macrophylla King and Dipterocarp species in Mindanao, and Leucaena leucocephala de Wit from Laguna, Antique, Cebu, Iloilo, Rizal, and Ilocos Sur. Non-linear regression was used to derive speciesspecific, site specific and generic equations between yield and diameter of the form y = αDβ. Equations were evaluated based on the correlation coefficient, standard error of estimate and residual plots. Regressions resulted in high r values (>0.90). In some cases, non-homogeneous variance was encountered. The generic equation improved estimates compared with models used in previous studies.

Keywords: Carbon sequestration, non-linear regression, generic equations

Annals of Tropical Research 29(3):73-90(2007)

Timber Market Information on Leyte Island, the Philippines

Author(s): Edwin Cedamon, Steve Harrison and John Herbohn


Information is essential in making marketing decisions. This paper presents an assessment of information concerning the timber market in Leyte Island, focusing on sources, how to access supply and demand information, and usefulness and limitations of available information. The sources of timber market information include (i) Philippine Forestry Statistics, (ii) a database of registered tree plantations, (iii) a barangay-based inventory of trees on farms, and (iv) tree measurements and data collected in the timber enterprise survey conducted by the ACIAR Tree Farm Project. Based on available secondary data, there are 27,635 ha of forest in Leyte that is potentially harvestable. In addition, based on the findings of the barangay-based tree farm inventory, there are approximately 2.7 M trees on tree farms on Leyte Island. Timber demand by entrepreneurs on Leyte Island has not been calculated yet from the available survey data of the ACIAR Tree Farmer Project; however, estimates show that the annual per capita timber consumption of the Philippines for 2005 was 7.8 board feet. It was found that although some secondary data on timber market information are available from government agencies, particularly the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, consumer and producer-level data are scarce. Most of the producer and consumer-level data available to date were gathered through the ACIAR Tree Farm Project.

Keywords: registered tree plantations, trees-on-farms inventory, timber enterprise survey, per capita timber consumption

Annals of Tropical Research 29(3):61-72(2007)

Case Studies of Tree Farmers in Maasin, Leyte Island, the Philippines

Author(s): Melissa Gordon


Case study interviews were conducted with five tree farmers in Southern Leyte Province of Leyte Island in the Philippines. The case studies were designed to gain indepth insights into the problems and benefits of growing and managing trees from the perspective of the tree farmers. Interviews focussed on attitudes to regulations concerning the registration of tree plantings and transport of timber. Also discussed were the way in which tree farmers manage their trees, why they choose to manage a tree farm and their interactions with staff of the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources. It was found that some tree farmers were motivated to plant trees after receiving free seedlings from the DENR and having positive interactions with DENR officers thereafter to help manage their farm and fulfil requirements of DENR policies. Tree farming was regarded as an effective way of improving living standards and welfare.

Keywords: in-depth interviewing, tree registration, free seedlings, harvest security, market information

Annals of Tropical Research 29(3):49-60(2007)

Assessment of Tree Registration in Leyte and Biliran Islands

Author(s): Emma M. Germano1, Emmanuel G. Tan2, Eduardo Mangaoang3 and Edwin Cedamon3


Staff in six Community Environment and Natural Resources Offices (CENROs) − four in Leyte Province, three in Southern Leyte Province and one in Biliran − were interviewed to establish baseline information on tree registration. In general, the rate of tree registration was found to be low, except in CENRO Maasin, where during 1997 to 2006 a total of 2799 tree farms were registered, covering an aggregate area of 2807 ha and with 1,292,495 trees registered. The highest number of tree farms registered in CENRO Maasin took place in 2004, when a total of 531 were registered, covering an area of 373 ha. Measures and strategies practiced by this CENRO to promote tree registration include: conducting an information, education and communication (IEC) campaign including distribution of extension materials; establishing a link between farmers and buyers in marketing products; and encouraging barangay officials to disseminate tree registration information. Factors leading to the low tree registration rate in Leyte and Biliran CENROs include: long distance between farms and CENR offices; weak tenure (farms under timberland status); inefficient processing of the registration documents; absence of the officer-in-charge of tree registration during farmer visits to Department of Environment and Natural Resources offices; land under common ownership; and farmers unaware about the tree registration process. Suggestions by respondents to improve tree registration include: regularly conducting IEC activities including distribution of extension material, supported by necessary funding; hiring of additional personnel for this purpose, to be assigned in every municipality; enhancing the timber market network; deputizing barangay officials as Environment and Natural Resources Officers (ENROs) to conduct tree inventory, authorized by municipal officials to collect Tree Inventory Certification.

Keywords: IEC campaign, timber marketing, secure legal rights

Annals of Tropical Research 29(3):39-48(2007)

Development of an Extension ‘Primer’ on Tree Registration Policy in Leyte: An Example of a Collaborative Material Design

Author(s): Melissa Gordon1, Rotacio Gravoso2, Eduardo Mangaoang2 and Edwin Balbarino2


Tree registration in the Philippines helps meet the legal requirements for harvesting and transport of timber, and is encouraged by the Philippines Government. To help improve information flow an extension primer was developed. The primer contains basic information on tree registration, harvesting, log transport and marketing. The development process involved input from staff of the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources, tree farmers, furniture dealers, the Philippine National Police, the World Agroforestry Centre, Visayas State University and The University of Queensland. Key stakeholders were brought together at three workshops to review policy information and explore the interactions between, and differing opinions of, the various stakeholders. The primer has been distributed widely. Positive feedback has been obtained, although testing has shown that further improvements are possible. A revised version of the primer is to be produced.

Keywords: forestry extension, smallholder forestry, tree registration, harvest rights

Annals of Tropical Research 29(3):25-37(2007)

Integrating Abaca in a Mixed Forest Culture: A Livelihood Option for Smallholder Tree Farmers

Author(s): Lelita R. Gonzal


This paper discuses the economic and ecological benefits of integrating abaca in established monoculture fruit trees and mixed forest culture, especially rainforestation farming. Integration of agricultural crops with high tolerance to shade, that will provide additional income to farmers and preserve the environment, is one of the key elements of a sustainable tree farming system. Inclusion of natural fibre plants such as abaca, a natural shade-loving plant, to the smallholder tree farming system will not only provide income opportunities to the farmers but also prevent soil erosion and conserve forest water. However, precautionary measures must be undertaken not to overshade the abaca since overshading causes the production of weak fibre. Integrating abaca in established monoculture fruit trees and mixed forest culture especially rainforestation farming is found to have a number of economic and ecological benefits.

Keywords: rainforest farming, shade tolerance, intercropping, return on investment

Annals of Tropical Research 29(3):15-24(2007)

Improving Commercial Possibilities of Non-wood Forest Products from Leyte, the Philippines

Author(s): Celeste Lacuna-Richman


Current literature regarding the economic potential of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) has become more cautious than previously, and earning an income from NWFPs is no longer considered a certainty for dwellers in many forested areas. However, there is also more information on the NWFPs, the areas from which there can be sustained collection and the markets where they can be competitive. This paper discusses some of the considerations to be taken into account to prevent costly mistakes in choosing NWFPs for commercialisation. It also highlights the possibilities for particular products to improve their prospects in markets from the local to the national and international level, using information from literature and past data on NWFPs in Leyte Province in the Philippines as an illustration. Past data include a list of several NWFPs from Cienda, Leyte. A table of relative frequency of use was assembled from this list after two rounds of interviews, to form the basis for possibly marketable NWFPs using a provisional template.

Keywords: success factors, marketing guidelines, subsistence products, growth commodities, high-value niche services, template for guidelines

Annals of Tropical Research 29(3):1-14(2007)