Monthly Archives: March 2021

Effect of ginger extract and sugar level in the sensorial quality and acceptability of Sinaging processed from swamp taro (Cyrtosperma chamissonis)

Authors: Melogen B. Bandalan, Clarita E. Morbos, Jenalyn M. Gonzaga, Eliza C. Cabugawan, and Amalia Paraluman B. Lombrio

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the sensory quality and acceptability of Sinaging as affected by the different levels of ginger extract and calamay sugar, obtain the optimum combination of ginger extract and calamay sugar, and determine the cost of producing Sinaging. A 3×3 Full Factorial experiment in Completely Randomized Design was employed. Three levels of ginger extract (2, 4, 6 %w/w) and sugar levels (20, 25, 30 %w/w) were the variables considered. Sensory evaluation using quality scoring in combination with the 9-point Hedonic scale was carried out. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistica 8.0 software and Statistical Analytical Software version 9 (SAS 2008).

Results revealed that the different levels of sugar and ginger extract significantly affected linearly the flavor, taste, and general acceptability of Sinaging. No significant effect was observed on its color, aroma, texture, and aftertaste. The mean acceptability rating of the different treatments ranged from 7.15 to 7.41 which corresponds to ‘like moderately’ in the 9-point Hedonic scale. The optimum combination was at 4.05% and 28.75% ginger extract and sugar, respectively. The production cost of the optimum formulation was 8.34 pesos per piece weighing 75g of Sinaging.

Keywords: calamay sugar, ginger, Palawan, sensory evaluation, Sinaging


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)
https://doi.org/10.32945/atr43110.2021
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In vitro activity of Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) leaf crude extracts against selected dermatophytes

Authors: Roxanne Joy B. Colendres and Carl Leonard M. Pradera

ABSTRACT

Fungal infections caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus , and Malassezia pachydermatis are among the major contributors to multisystemic health problems such as dermatitis, otitis, and respiratory disorders among humans and animals. This study was conducted to determine the in vitro antifungal activity of Terminalia catappa leaf crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts against these fungal pathogens by measuring the zone of inhibition (ZI) using the agar well diffusion technique. Qualitative phytochemical screening tests were also performed to determine bioactive compounds present in the plant extract.
Results show that the plant’s crude aqueous (CAE) and ethanolic extracts (CEE) were found to be effective against all test fungi. M. pachydermatis showed susceptibility towards CAE and CEE from T1 (100%), T2 (75%), T3 (50%) and T4 (25%), with the highest mean ZI of 18.33mm and 13.33, respectively. On the other hand, T. mentagrophytes was inhibited by CAE and CEE at T1 (100%), T2 (75%) and T3 (50%) with the highest mean ZI of 9.67mm and 10.33mm, respectively. At the same time, it was observed that A. fumigatus had reactive sensitivity towards CAE and CEE at T1 (100%) and T2 (75%), with the highest mean ZI of 9.33mm and 10.33mm, respectively. Moreover, phytochemical tests showed that the plant’s leaf crude extracts contain alkaloids, saponins, and tannins, which could potentially inhibit fungal growth.

Keywords: Antifungal, Aspergillus fumigatus, bioactive compounds, Malassezia pachydermatis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, zone of inhibition


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)
https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4314.2021
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Early stages of somatic embryo genesis in plumule explants of Philippine Makapuno hybrid VMAC5

Authors: Kenn Erika T. Juanillo and Tessie C. Nunez

ABSTRACT

Early bearing, self-pollinating and medium-to-big-seeded Philippine makapuno hybrid VMAC5 is propagated through in vitro embryo culture. This yields one plantlet per embryo in at least six months. To evaluate the potential of mass producing planting materials in vitro, a protocol developed by the Philippine Coconut Authority was used to initiate somatic embryogenesis in whole and cut plumule explants from VMAC5 nuts. Calloid initiation was obtained 8 to 12 days from initial culture in semi-solid medium under dark incubation at 8% in cut and 5% in whole plumules. White translucent structures characteristic of embryogenic calloids formed on the cut plumules one month after initial culture. At 60 days old, distinct ear-shaped pre-embryogenic structures and white shiny globular pre-somatic embryos developed in whole explants. Hard, friable, and whitish to yellowish calloids with pre-embryogenic masses were also observed in cut plumule explants. At 90 days after the initial culture, more distinct pre-somatic and globular somatic embryos developed in both explants.

Keywords: Makapuno hybrid, in vitro culture, plumule explants, somatic embryogenesis


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)
https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4318.2021
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Physico-chemical quality and sensory evaluation of pummelo fruit as influenced by potassium fertilization

Authors: Alminda Magbalot-Fernandez and Constancio C. De Guzman

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the influence of potassium (K) fertilization on the physico-chemical and sensory qualities of ‘Magallanes’ pummelo [Citrus maxima (Burm. Ex Rumph.) Merr.] fruit. The field experiment was conducted for 12 months at South Davao Corporation (SODACO) farm in Davao City. Five treatments with increasing K levels were applied per tree: control, no K, 150g K basal, 225g K basal, and 225g K basal + foliar application. The fruit physico-chemical qualities and sensory attributes were analyzed the following harvest. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and honest significance difference tests.
Application of 225g K rates positively influenced the fruit quality but not the sensory attributes of pummelo. Fruit pulp diameter increased by 36% while peel thickness decreased by 29-75%. An increase of 39% juice weight per fruit was obtained in 150g K. The yield of juice per tree increased up to 11 times with 225g K level. The 225g K rates also increased juice pH by 8-12%, titrable acidity by 9 times, and total soluble solids per tree by 6 times than no application. The application of 225g K basal + foliar resulted to higher fruit weight, TA, and TSS in pummelo fruit. The results of the study indicated the important role of K in improving the fruit physico-chemical qualities in ‘Magallanes’ pummelo.

Keywords: Fruit quality, Physico-chemical properties, sensory, pummelo, potassium


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)
https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4319.2021
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Heavy metal tolerance of filamentous fungi from the sediments of Visayas State University wastewater pond

Authors: Richie Mar M. Eliseo and Jayzon G. Bitacura

ABSTRACT

The ability to tolerate high concentrations of heavy metals is one important characteristic of organisms that can be used for bioremediation. In this study, the heavy metal tolerance of filamentous fungi isolated from the VSU wastewater settlement pond was investigated. Specifically, the research was done to determine the Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn in the sediments of the pond, isolate and identify filamentous fungi from these sediments, identify the most tolerant isolate, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metals to the identified isolate. Isolation of filamentous fungi from a composite of eight sediment samples was done through serial dilution and plating using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Isolates were then purified using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). Colony and microscopic characteristics of the isolates were used to identify the isolates to genus level only. The tolerance of the isolates to Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn were then compared through analysis of their tolerance index based on the colony extension radius. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of these heavy metals were obtained for the isolate with the highest tolerance index. The Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn contents of the composite sediment sample were <0.0002mg kg-1, 0.0203mg kg-1, 7.419mg kg-1, and 0.106mg kg-1, respectively. Three filamentous fungi were successfully isolated from the sediments and were identified as Rhizopus sp., Mucor sp. and Trichoderma sp. Among these isolates, Rhizopus sp. was the most tolerant to all the heavy metals tested. Average range of MIC values of Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn to Rhizopus sp. were determined at 5mM<MIC≤6.5mM, 10mM<MIC≤15mM, 30mM≤MIC≤35mM, and 25mM<MIC≤30mM, respectively. These results showed that the Rhizopus sp. isolated is the most potential candidate in bioremediating heavy metal contaminated areas.

Keywords: Industrial effluents, heavy metal pollution, mycoremediation, tolerance index, filamentous fungi


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)
https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4317.2021
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Digestive enzyme activity in the guts of Epilachna chrysomelina (fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) during post-embryonic development

Authors: Akinkunmi, Olukemi Yetunde, Pitan, Olufemi Richard, Ademolu, Kehinde Olutoyin, Osipitan and Adebola Adedoyin

ABSTRACT

The gut regions of Epilachna chrysomelina are endowed with multiple enzymes that aid digestion of host plant tissues. Digestive enzymes present in the gut regions of E. chrysomelina during various developmental stages were studied in the laboratory to determine the most destructive life stage of the beetle for proper management measures. Cellulase, α-glucosidase, amylase, lipase and proteinase activities were observed in the guts. The mid-gut recorded significantly higher (p<0.05) enzymes than other gut sections except amylase where higher activity was observed in the foregut. Lipase (38.24abs per min), α-glucosidase (25.65 abs per min) and proteinase (28.70abs per min) activities were significantly higher in the immature stages while cellulase (19.46abs per min) and amylase activities (16.62abs per min) were higher in the adult stage. The 4th instar larval and the adult stages recorded higher enzyme activities and thus can be regarded as the most destructive stages of development.

Keywords: Gut enzyme, Epilachna chrysomelina, post-embryonic, development, digestion


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)
https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4316.2021
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Changes in the nutritional composition of okra fruit and seed during early development

Authors: Tito Cachero and Beatriz S. Belonias

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the changes in nutrient content of the fruit and seed of Okra or Lady Finger during development and maturation. Okra flowers were tagged at flower opening or anthesis. Sample fruits (technically called capsules) that developed from the tagged flowers were collected at random at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after anthesis (DAA). The pericarp and seed samples were oven-dried and ground to a powdered form and analyzed for chlorophyll, sugar, starch, crude protein and crude fiber content using standard procedures. Chlorophyll and crude fiber content were strongly positively correlated with fruit age, being lowest in the pericarp of young fruits and highest in older fruits. Sugar, starch and protein content were all negatively correlated with fruit age. They were highest in the pericarp of young 3-day old fruits and steadily decreased with maturity, reaching lowest levels at day 24. In the seeds, protein and starch contents were weakly correlated with fruit maturity. Throughout seed development, sugar remained relatively low while starch and protein content remained high. Based on the results, okra fruits are best harvested as fresh green vegetable at 9 DAA. At this stage, the fruits are succulent, less fibrous and are rich in proteins and carbohydrates. Although much younger fruits also have high nutrient content, they are too small in size, so harvesting them at this stage would not be practical and profitable.

Keywords: okra, capsule, chlorophyll, nutrients, anthesis


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)
https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4315.2021
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Climate change vulnerability assessment of the coastal resources in Moalboal, Cebu, Central Philippines

Authors: Annie G. Diola, Wenifel P. Perpetcho, Juan Carlos A. Graciosa, Glacy Dee B. Pantanosas, Rhys H. Montecillo, Shena Mae M. Flores, Renante R. Violanda, Roland Emerito S. Otadoy and Danilo T. Dy

ABSTRACT

The municipality of Moalboal (Cebu, Central Philippines) falls under Cluster XI (coastal and marine areas of the south Sulu Sea are most prone to sea level rise) in the climate-ocean hazard typology. Coastal activities, such as aquaculture, fishing, recreation, and tourism are integral to Moalboal’s economy. Its economy is partly dependent on coastal resources and could be vulnerable to sea level rise. Hence, there is a need to determine the vulnerability profile of the municipality, through indicator-based vulnerability assessment. Results using vulnerability assessment tools coupled with GIS-based workflows showed that the overall vulnerability to climate change of mangroves was moderate and low for both seagrasses and corals. A better understanding of how human activities may directly and indirectly affect coastal resources is urgently needed. Integrated coastal zone management provides a major opportunity to address the many issues and challenges of climate change in an effort to design and develop adaptation strategies.

Keywords: climate change, climate risk, climate adaptation, GIS, Moalboal


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)

Plant residues, beneficial microbes and integrated phosphorus management for improving hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) growth and total biomass

Authors: Amanullah, Asif Iqbal, Asim Muhammad, Abdel Rahman Altawaha, Azizullah Shah, and Brajendra Parmar

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus (P) unavailability and lack of organic matter in calcareous soils in semiarid climates are the major reasons for low crop productivity. This field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the summer of 2015 to investigate the impact of plant residues (PR) (faba bean, garlic and paper mulberry residues) and phosphorous sources [(60 and 120kg ha-1) from single super phosphate (SSP) and poultry manure (PM)] with (+) and without (-) phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the phenological development, growth and biomass yield of hybrid maize “CS-200”. Among the PR, application of faba bean residue was found to delay phenological development (days to tasseling, silking and physiological maturity), improved growth (taller plants, higher leaf area per plant and leaf area index) and produced the highest biomass yield (faba bean>garlic>paper mulberry residues). Application of P at the rate of 120kg ha-1 from the inorganic source (SSP) was more beneficial in terms of better growth and higher biomass yield (120-SSP≥120-PM>60-SSP>60-PM kg P ha-1). The plots with (+) PSB showed enhanced phenological development, produced significantly taller plants with higher leaf area per plant and leaf area index and produced the highest biomass yield. On the basis of these results we concluded that the application of faba bean residues, phosphorus at the rate of 120kg ha-1 either from organic or inorganic sources with the inoculation of seed with PSB improved the growth and total biomass of hybrid maize in the study area.

Keywords: Zea mays L, Phenology, Growth, Biomass, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria, Plant Residues


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)
https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4312.2021
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Diversity, relative abundance and temporal spread of insects associated with Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) at Makurdi, Nigeria

Authors: Simon, Liliian Dada, Ogunwolu, Emmanuel Oludele, Okoroafor, Eunice and Edache Ernest Ekoja

ABSTRACT

Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., is cultivated extensively for food and income generation in Africa, but research on biotic constraints to its production has been scanty. A 48-plot (5m×5m wide each) field experiment laid in randomized complete block design was used to document the relative abundance (% RA), diversity, richness, and temporal spread of insect species infesting the crop at Makurdi, Nigeria. The insects were collected from all parts of early- and late-sown green-calyx (H. sabdariffa var. sabdariffa) and red-calyx (H. sabdariffa var. altissima) Roselle shoots. About 101 species (81 herbivores, 18 predators, 1 parasitoid, and 1 pollinator) in 45 families and 8 orders were collected. Shannon’s diversity index (2.1-2.4) and Margalef’s richness index (8.3-10.0) indicate a rich diversity of species on the crop. However, evenness of species, measured by Buzas and Gibson’s index, was low (0.1-0.41). The orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera accounted for 72.0% of the collection. Nineteen species were moderately (≥1 RA<5%) to highly abundant (RA≥10%) on the crop and among them Monolepta thompsoni Allard and Nisotra sjostedti Jac. were ubiquitous causing extensive leaf perforation all through the entire crop growth period. At the reproductive stage of growth, Dysdercus volkeri Fab., Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa and Earias sp. were the dominant insects causing fruit and seed damage. The frequency of occurrence and densities of M. thompsoni Allard, N. sjostedti Jac., D. volkeri Fab., O. hyalinipennis Costa and Earias sp. as well as their extensive damage, indicate that they are the key field pests of Roselle at Makurdi.

Keywords: Roselle, Insect species, Green-calyx, Red-calyx, Diversity, Richness, Temporal spread


Annals of Tropical Research 43(1):**-**(2021)
https://doi.org/10.32945/atr4311.2021
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