Monthly Archives: November 2020

Reproduction performance of sows inseminated with stress gene-free semen given probiotic- supplemented feed

Author: Julius V. Abela1*

ABSTRACT Submitted: 12 October 2019 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

This study generally aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with various levels of a novel product containing probiotic and yeast cells, a feed enzyme, short-chain oligosaccharides, and herbal extracts (Farmer Peck’s Performance Booster┬«) and the use of halothane free gene semen on two successive parities in sows in selected farms in Leyte. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with treatment used in T0 – (in-feed antibiotics, Og probiotic/kilogram feed and Al using semen from farm’s boar); T1 – (0 antibiotics, 2g probiotic/kilogram feed and Al with halothane free gene semen) and T2 – (0 antibiotics, 3g probiotic/kilogram feed and Al with halothane free gene semen). The study results showed that sow-litter performance of artificially inseminated sows using halothane free gene semen in two farrowing seasons was significantly higher in T1 and T2 groups than that of To group as affected by probiotic supplementation. Probiotic supplementation, both at 2g kg-1 (T1) and 3g kg-1 (T2) of feed is effective in improving both litter and sow performance. The cost of using halothane free gene semen for Al is less as compared to using semen from the farm’s boar, and the cost of using probiotic at two levels as feed additive is relatively lower than using antibiotics based on the pre-weaning mortality, litter size, and litter weight at weaning. The use of halothane free gene semen can now be widely used in the different piggery farms. Including the use of probiotic supplement for both the sows and piglets.

Keywords: probiotic supplementation, artificial insemination, halothane free gene semen, swine production


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):163-173(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr42212.2020
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Rootcrops processing waste management by Pyrolysis conversion

Author: Ramon Orias

ABSTRACT Submitted: 12 October 2019 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

The waste products derived from the commercial processing of root crops are the soiled peels, trimmings, root tissues, and by-products like pulp fibers obtained from the finishing operations. These bulky waste products create the management problems of safe storage and environmentally sound disposal.
Processing the wastes from cassava was found to be the most suitable for pyrolysis conversion from among the rootcrops considered. Results showed that, of the four (4) cassava waste forms, larger briquette was found to have the highest vinegar yield conversion at 1.842L per kg while the shred form had the lowest at 1.203L per kg. The rate of vinegar production was also fastest from the briquettes at 2.388L per h and lowest from the raw form at 1.544L per h. Better vinegar yields were therefore associated with solid fuel forms, smaller bed porosity, smaller surface reaction area, and lower gasification temperature. Other factors that also affected vinegar production were the loading rates, air supply conditions, and heat exchanger efficiency. In this study, the available Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) was only 45.67┬░C, indicative of poor performance of the exchanger unit. The heat exchanger unit’s design can be improved in future experiments by using good thermal conducting materials, reconfiguration, and increasing the conductor interface area. This should result in higher vinegar yields.

Keywords: Rootcrops, processing wastes, pyrolysis conversion, wood vinegar, flue gas temperature


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):149-162(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr42211.2020
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Characterization of charcoal produced by different Pyrolyzing techniques

Authors: Ma. Grace Curay1*, Abigail Joy Ching1, Kazel Duran1, Regine Mary Talingting1 and Sheila Balladares

ABSTRACT Submitted: 12 October 2019 | Accepted: 09 June 2020

Different pyrolyzing techniques are assumed to yield products with different content and adsorption rate. This study aimed to characterize five coconut charcoal samples from different pyrolyzing techniques such as Drum Kiln, Pit Method, Top Lift Updraft Method for TLUD – Top Sample & TLUD – Bottom Sample, and Hookway Retort to determine the best production method that will yield a quality of charcoal suitable for adsorption applications. Proximate analysis and adsorption kinetic studies were done to characterize and determine the rate of adsorption. Charcoal samples were ranked based on the following criteria and weights: 70% for adsorption capacity, 20% for fixed carbon, and 10% for the volatile matter. High adsorption capacity, high fixed carbon, and low volatile matter are good charcoal qualities for adsorption. For proximate analysis, ASTM Methods (ASTM D3302, ASTM D3175-17, ASTM D3174-12, ASTM D3172-13) were used. Experimental data showed that fixed carbon content of charcoal samples from Drum Kiln, Pit Method, TLUD-Top, TLUD-Bottom, and Hookway was 54.63%, 56.84%, 64.77%, 45.85%, and 56.59% respectively; while 30.69%, 31.65%, 20.65%, 43.39%, and 24.13% respectively for the volatile matter. For adsorption kinetic studies, optimization was done using Box-Behnken design with initial concentration, adsorbent dose, and pH as factors. The Hookway sample was subjected to optimization, where its optimum conditions were used for the rest of the charcoal samples. The experimental data for the adsorption kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second-order exhibited the best fit for all the charcoal samples. The coefficient of determination for charcoal samples from Drum Kiln, Pit Method, TLUD-Top, TLUD-Bottom, and Hookway Method are 0.9253, 0.944, 0.7267, 0.9885, and 0.9216. Applying the weights, the best charcoal sample is from Kiln, followed by Pit, TLUD-Bottom, TLUD-Top, and Hookway. Production temperature, pressure, and humidity could be employed in future studies to determine what affects the quality of charcoal during pyrolysis.

Keywords: Proximate Analysis, adsorption kinetic, charcoal, pyrolyzing methods


Annals of Tropical Research 42(2):131-148(2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32945/atr42210.2020
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