Monthly Archives: May 2018

The natural environment as a significant factor in farmers and fishermen’s notions of peace

Author(s): Guiraldo C. Fernandez, Jr.1* and Sister Geraldine D. Villaluz, RSCJ2


This study delves into the aspect on how the farmers of Barangay Kambonggan, a mountainous coconut farming community thirteen kilometers from the poblacion of Baybay, Leyte, Philippines and the fishermen of the coastal fishing community of Sitio Lapawon, Barangay Santo Rosario of the same locality understand the notion of Peace through the qualitative research method of Phenomenology. This study finds out that the farmers understand peace in relation to their concept of kinabuhi ug kinaiyahan (life in relation to the environment). The farmers believe that peace is only achievable if Mother Nature favors them in their livelihood through good weather conditions that suit coconut farming and crop cultivation. Yet, the farmers are certain that Nature’s cooperation is acquired only when they do their share in the care and conservation of the environment. Hence, for farmers, the attainment of peace entails a two-way process. This study also finds out that the fishermen’s notion of peace is also greatly influenced by Mother Nature. In fact, fishermen understand peace in relation to the concept of Dagat maoy kinabuhi (the sea is life). Since the sea is part of fishermen’s lives, this study finds out that the behavior and generosity of the sea also determines the fishermen’s understanding and experience of peace. Like the experience of their farmer counterparts, achieving peace also requires a two-way reciprocal process. This paper concludes that the farmers and fishermen’s notions of peace are greatly influenced by the behavior of the environment towards their way of life.

Keywords : Kinabuhi (life), Peace, Natural Environment, and Conservation.

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):126-138(2018)

Climate change and forest governance: towards a sustainable forest management of the half mile forest strip and adjacent communities in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Author(s): Edina Augustino1* and Gileard Sifueli Minja2


The study focused on the influence of climate change on forest governance at the Half Mile Forest Strip (HMFS) and adjacent villages in the Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. Specifically, the study identified the impacts of climate change on the HMFS and adjacent communities, and examined the people’s perceptions on climate change in relation to forest governance. Further, the study examined the role of local institutions on forest governance and climate change resilience and adaptation strategies with associated policy interventions. The study adopted a mixed research designs whereby both qualitative and quantitative data were collected through different methods such as direct field observation, using semi-structured interviews, household surveys and focus group discussion. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software and excel programs. Findings revealed that climate change has affected the forest ecosystems, agriculture and water resources in the adjacent villages. Using the Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, it was revealed that there was a negative correlation between the impacts of climate change and the current forest condition. Forest governance was perceived as a control mechanism for forest degradation whereby restrictions on the use of forest resource, afforestation, and reforestation were undertaken as measures to mitigate climate change impacts and build resilience in the forest sector and to adjacent communities.

Keywords : Forest governance, Climate change and Sustainable forest management

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):114-125(2018)

Evaluation of physicochemical, functional and microbiological properties of fermented EVIARC sweet jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds flour

Author(s): Maria Norfrelij J. Cuadra1*, Lorina A. Galvez2 and Felix J. Amestoso2


Jackfruit seeds are rich in carbohydrates and protein. It can be processed into flour as a nutritious product which can be stored for future use. However, jackfruit seed flour has limited cooking applications, thus, the need to improve its functionality through natural fermentation process. The study was conducted to determine the effects of lactic acid and fermentation time on the physicochemical, functional and microbiological properties of the fermented jackfruit seed flour, compared to its unfermented counterpart.
A 3×3 full factorial design following Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with different levels of lactic acid (0, 1.5, 3%) and fermentation time (16, 24, 32 hours) and with a control treatment was used. Data for all experimental combinations were analyzed using One-way ANOVA where means were compared using Tukey’s HSD.
Analysis of variance results revealed that the physico-chemical and functional properties of control treatment is significantly different from the fermented jackfruit flour in terms of pH, moisture and carbohydrates. Moreover, fermentation and lactic acid contributed to increase in quality values of the jackfruit flour except for %energy, %carbohydrates and bulk density. The faster drop in pH brought about by lactic acid increased the count of aerobic bacterial, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds.

Keywords : fermentation, jackfruit seeds flour, physico-chemical, functional properties, microbial monitoring

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):100-113(2018)

Distribution, mapping, sustainable harvesting and marketing of laurel leaves (Cinnamomum mindanaese) in Boljoon, Cebu, Philippines

Author(s): Hemres M. Alburo1*, Rosalyn P. Alburo1, Mario F. Gabucan1 and Cesilo Albiso2


Cinnamons are popularly known as spice and flavoring to many foods. In the Philippines, laurel leaves (Cinnamomum mindanaense) are commonly used as spice to many Filipino dishes. In Cebu, C. minadanaense abundantly grows in San Antonio, Boljoon, where the community harvests and trades leaves for decades. An inventory of C. mindanaense was made to establish baseline data on the number of trees per diameter classes. A survey on knowledge, harvesting and marketing of C. mindanaense was also conducted. Trees by diameter class were mapped using ArcMap 10.5. A total of 5332 trees were inventoried and grouped into five diameter classes namely 10cm and below, 11-20cm, 21-30cm, 31-40cm and above 40cm. Results show that trees are generally small and growing on limestone areas both within Alienable and Disposable lands and timberland areas. Ninety-two percent or 4918 trees have diameter of 20cm or less. Leaves are harvested mostly by cutting all branches especially during dry season. Harvesting is generally made once a year. Over mature leaves tend to reduce quality due to disease and insect damage. Cut branches are sundried for 3 days then leaves are removed and traded to middlemen in the village at P10-15 per kilo or in Cebu City at P20-25/kg. Average harvest of farmers is 8 sacks per year with 20-25kg/sack. Income derived from cinnamons is only secondary. Development of products from the branches left or from the dried laurel leaves may be explored to enhance community livelihood and increase economic potential of the species.

Keywords : spice trees, cinnamon, non-timber forest products, sustainable harvesting

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):89-99(2018)

Aggregate stability affects carbon sequestration potential of different tropical soils

Author(s): Leo Jude D. Villasica1, Suzette B. Lina2* and Victor B. Asio2


Aggregate stability and carbon (C) sequestration in soils are closely related phenomena. However, high aggregate stability does not always ensure high carbon sequestration to some soil types since other binding agents could dominate other than carbon. Thus, this study aimed to determine the relationship between aggregate stability and carbon sequestration of different tropical soils which basically differ in geology, genesis, and possibly in their dominant aggregating agents. The study selected four representative soil types (Haplic Acrisol, Calcaric Cambisol, Silic Andosol and Haplic Ferralsol) found in Leyte and Samar that were characterized by previous workers. Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) and Aggregate Stability (AS) in dry and wet conditions were quantified using standard procedures. Some pertinent secondary data were also recorded as reference for each soil type. Results revealed that only Silic Andosol showed positive significant correlation (0.93) between aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC). The other soil types showed weak and negative correlation between aggregate stability and SOC; however, their stability revealed a strong positive relationship with inorganic binding agents. Therefore, each soil type reflects a different relationship between aggregate stability in wet condition and SOC and that the variations could be attributed to the differences in the morpho-physical and geochemical nature of the soils. Moreover, SOC is found to greatly influence the aggregate stability in Silic Andosol, thus the soil carbon sequestration potential of this soil type is generally related to its aggregate stability. However, in other soil types like Haplic Acrisol, Calcaric Cambisol, and Haplic Ferralsol, other binding agents like Calcium (Ca) and iron oxides dominate and control the formation and stability of aggregates rather than SOC.

Keywords : Soil organic carbon, aggregate stability, soil carbon sequestration, soil types, Haplic Acrisol, Calcaric Cambisol, Silic Andosol, Haplic Ferralsol.

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):71-88(2018)

Soil classification, suitability assessment, and contraints analyses of major soil series grown to sugarcane in Negros Occidental, Philippines

Author(s): Clea Anne V. Corsiga1*, Rodrigo B. Badayos2, Pearl B. Sanchez2, Erlinda S. Paterno2 and Pompe C. Sta. Cruz2


Five major soil series (Guimbalaon, Isabela, Luisiana, San Manuel, and Silay) in Negros Occidental were evaluated to assess the suitability of major soil series grown to sugarcane and identify possible constraints of the soils for sugarcane production. Specifically, the study assessed the morphological, physical, and chemical properties of soils associated with the growing of sugarcane; evaluated the land quality requirements for major soil series grown to sugarcane; determined the suitability of major soil series for sugarcane production; and evaluated the possible soil constraints to sugarcane production.
Soil pH, total N, percent organic C, and available P were found highest in Isabela series; exchangeable K in Guimbalaon series; exchangeable Na, Ca, and Mg, extractable Fe, and CEC in San Manuel series; and exchangeable Al in Luisiana series. All of the soil series evaluated were classified as marginally suitable (S3) for sugarcane production, although soil constraints varied across soil series. Topography and wetness were the severe constraints common to all soil series. Limitations on fertility and physical soil characteristics were considered moderate and manageable.

Keywords : soil classification, soil suitability, soil constraints, sugarcane production

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):53-70(2018)

Blood profile of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with aged garlic extract or humates with probiotics at different growth stages

Author(s): Honeylet J. Nicolas*


The study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing aged garlic extract (AGE) and humates with probiotics (HWP), at varying growth stages, on the blood profile of Cobb 500 broilers. The experiment followed the 4×4 factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The feed supplement was used as factor A (negative control, with AGE, with HWP, and positive control or antibacterial), and the different growth stage as the factor B (brooder stage/0-12 d, starter stage/13-21 d, grower stage/22-28 d, and brooder to grower stages/0-28 d). A total of 320 male day-old Cobb broiler chicks (DOC) were randomly distributed to 16 groups with four replicates each. The supplements were given at 1g/kg inclusion rate. Supplementation has no effect on the erythrocytic indices, specifically the RBC count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The results showed that with the supplementation of AGE and HWP, the erythrocytic indices were maintained within the physiological limits. Thus, AGE and HWP supplementation has no adverse effect on the blood profile of Cobb 500 broiler.

Keywords : aged garlic extract (AGE), broiler, humates, probiotics

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):46-52(2018)

The effect of Trichoderma on the growth and development of tomato and bean under greenhouse and field conditions

Author(s): Gwendolyn Ban1*, Shamsul Akanda1 and Macquin Maino1


Trichoderma’s plant growth stimulating effect is well-recognized besides its well-known role as a biocontrol agent against plant diseases. Two greenhouse and field studies were conducted at the Papua New Guinea University of Technology (PNGUOT) to test the effects of Trichoderma harzianum on the growth of tomato and bean plants. Greenhouse potted plants were inoculated with three T. harzianum strains at 106 CFUmL-1, whereas, the field experiments were inoculated with T. harzianum strain LIPIMCO548 in rice bran at 0, 25, 50 and 75g/m2 soil. In the greenhouse experiments, Trichoderma inoculation increased the root and shoot length, and total fresh weight of bean plant up to 16.57, 20.79 and 21.37%, respectively over the un-inoculated control. For tomato plants, significantly higher (p ≤0.05, LSD) average root growth was observed when inoculated with T. harzianum strain CE262 over the control. On average, Trichoderma inoculation increased the root and shoot length, and the fresh weight up to 26.4, 9.6 and 18.8%, respectively over the control. Similar growth patterns were also observed in the field experiments. These results will be of immense value to vegetable growers in Papua New Guinea (PNG), especially to the intensive vegetable growing areas in the highland regions of the country.

Keywords : Trichoderma hazianum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Phaseolus vulgaris, vegetable.

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):35-45(2018)

Azolla pinnata R.Br.: a reliable fern species to demonstrate satisfactory in-vitro anti-oxidation under herbicidal toxicity

Author(s): Arnab Kumar De1, Indraneel Saha1, Bipul Sarkar1, Narottam Dey2 and MK Adak1


The paper reports the induced antioxidation property of Azolla pinnata R.Br. under elevated conditions of the herbicide 2,4-D. With respect to phenolic accumulation, the plant registered varied in-vitro antioxidation potentials. Total antioxidation through phosphomolybdenum complex, DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl, 1-picryllydrazyl), and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities were the most significant attributes of this plant species. A gradual fall in phosphomolybdenum complex suggested more involvement in the chelation of 2,4-D, with metal ligands. The plant was able to quench the reactive oxygen species (ROS) up to a certain level of 2,4-D but thereafter it failed. Another module with ABTS induced free radical antioxidation, the plant insignificantly responded to any changes of 2,4-D concentrations as compared to the control with reference to BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene). The most stable phenolic glucoside as flavonoid had a significant and dose-dependent over expression under 2,4-D toxicity. In modules of enzymatic antioxidants, Azolla was quite sensitive to peroxidation of H2O2 by different isozymic proteins. A significant participation of polyphenol oxidase and catalase were more pronounced whereas peroxidases were least significant in in vitro assay. Taking altogether both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidation indices, Azolla is an efficient quencher species for herbicide contaminated soils.

Keywords : Antioxidative enzymes; Antioxidants; Herbicide; Aquatic fern

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):18-34(2018)

Response of sweetpotato to the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers in marginal upland

Author(s): Berta C. Ratilla1*, Jay-Ar P. Bagarinao2 and Othello B. Capuno3


Marginal uplands are characterized by low soil fertility and crop productivity. To alleviate the problem, organic amendments combined with inorganic fertilizer were tested to assess their effects on the growth and yield performance of sweetpotato; determine the option treatment combination; and assess the soil physicochemical properties. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used with 3 replications and 7 treatments, namely: T0 = (0-0-0); T1 = 1 t ha-1 Evans + 30-30-30 kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1; T2 = 1 t ha-1 Wellgrow + 30-30-30 kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1; T3 = 15 t ha-1 chicken dung alone; T4 = 10 t ha-1 chicken dung + 30-30-30 kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1; T5 = 15 t ha-1 Vermicast alone; and T6 = 10 t ha-1 Vermicast + 30-30-30 kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1. Application of 10 t ha-1 of either chicken dung or vermicast plus 30-30-30 kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1 in Inopacan, Leyte produced higher total root yield over the control. Root yield during the second cropping greatly increased to 16.19 t ha-1 which is almost 3 times higher than the first crop when 15 t ha-1 chicken dung alone (T3) was used. In Sta. Rita, Samar, most of the growth, yield, and yield parameters of sweetpotato were not affected by the treatments. Moreover, only a slight improvement in soil properties was noted.

Keywords : chicken dung, marginal uplands, organic fertilizers, sweetpotato, vermicast

Annals of Tropical Research 40(1):1-17(2018)