Category Archives: Volume 9 No. 1 (1987)

Consumption of Secondary Food Crops by Low-and High-Income Households


Author(s): Jose M. Alkuino, Jr.

Abstract

The study attempted to identify the kinds of secondary food crops consumed by households when the normally consumed staple food is scarce or when such households experience an income squeeze. One thousand two hundred households in the Visayas region were included in the survey. The respondents were divided into high- and low-income groups based on the median income of the group. Four secondary food crops, namely: sweet potato, plantain banana, cassava and taro were usually bought by respondents to supplement their staple food consumption. In general, more respondents in the low-income group bought plantain bananas than those who bought sweet potato and vice versa in the high-income group. Low-income households showed higher preference for cassava than high-income households most probably because of its low price. Most respondents preferred sweet potato due to its easy preparation.

Keywords : Secondary food crops. Respondents. Consumption. Low-and high-income households. Demand. Preference.

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Comparative Composition, Abundance and Dominants of Meiofauna Between a Muddy and a Sandy Substrate in Silut Bay, Cental Philippines


Author: Bernardita C. Pilapil

Abstract

The tropical meiofauna communities of a muddy and a sandy portion in Shut Bay, Liloan, Central Philippines were compared. The sandy substrate supports a more varied meiofauna community than the muddy substrate although faunal composition between the two substrate types differs only slightly. Ten meiofauna groups (Copepoda, Bivalvia, Nematoda, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Tardigrada, Polychaeta, Amphipoda, kinorhyn-Oa and Turbellaria) were observed in the sandy substrate. However of the 10groups, polychaetes and tardigrades were not found in the muddy station at the time of sampling. The muddy substrate showed an abundance (2024/ 10 cm2) which is about 9 times higher than that in the sandy substrate (216/ 10 cm2). Nematoda and Copepoda were the most dominant taxonomic groups in the muddy and sandy substrates, respectively.

Keywords : Sandy substrate. Muddy substrate. Meiofauna. Composi-tion. Abundance. Dominance. Silut Bay.

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Effects of Lime on the Growth and Yield of Corn in Maasin City


Author(s): G. L. Amora, R. G. Escalada and B. F. Quirol

Abstract

Lime application did not affect the period from planting to seedling emergence, tasseling, and maturity; number of leaves at tasseling; plant height at maturity; and the number and weight of ears per plant and weight of 1000 grains. However, application of 3.3, 11.6 and 21.3 t dolomite/ha markedly increased stover yield, ear size, total grain yield and shelling percentage of corn. These levels of lime resulted in higher profitability over the control by as much as 209.57, 236.85 and 91.34 percent, respectively.
Application of 11.6 and 21.3 t dolomite/ha improved the chemical properties of the soil by increasing pH, organic matter and phosphorus. These lime rates also decreased the concentration of potassium and acidic ions like aluminum. In contrast, excessive lime application (31.3 t dolomite/ha) lowered the availability of P due to the formation of insoluble compounds. It also significantly reduced the different corn parameters.

Keywords : Lime. Dolomite. Corn (Zea mays L.). Growth. Yield. Maasin clay.

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Infectivity and in vitro Production of Sweet Potato Scab Fungus (Sphaceloma batatas Saw.) Inoculum


Author: Rodolfo A. Paningbatan

Abstract

Sweet potato stem agar and exposure to continuous darkness supported the most abundant conidial production of Sphaceloma batatas. Saw. Sweet potato stem agar produced 19 times more conidia than sweet potato tuber agar and almost 3 times more conidia than potato dextrose agar. Sporulation in carrot agar peaked at 12-15 days after seeding and harvestable conidia generally declined after 18 days of incubation. Multipoint seeding of agar slants hastened sporulation and increased conidial production by almost 6 times compared to single-point seeding. Infectivity of conidia decreased with age of agar culture probably due to the drastic decline in conidial viability with age. Conidia from 1-week old agar cultures were most infective on sweet potato internodes and leaves.

Keywords : Sweet potato scab. Sphaceloma batatas Saw. Conidial production in vitro. Infectivity.

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Handling of Coconut Water and Clarification of Coco-Vinegar for Small-Scale Production


Author(s): Truong Van Den and Melimer E. Marquez

Abstract

The study aimed to develop an appropriate small-scale technique of producing sparkling clear vinegar from coconut water. Results indicate that (1) at least 8% w/v alcohol solution is required to produce the standard vinegar with 4% w/v acetic acid by the traditional method, and (2) the alcohol solution can be stored for 6 weeks prior to acetification without affecting the product quality.
In the clarification process, well-beaten egg albumin (preferably 7-9 g egg white/liter vinegar or two egg whites per 10 liters vinegar) was added to raw vinegar. The solution was then stirred and heated to coagulate the albumin. It was allowed to stand for a day, decanted and filtered. The clarified vinegar was aged for 3-4 weeks for further sedimentation before bottling and pasteurization. The samples remained stable even after one year of storage and were accepted in various food preparations.

Keywords : Vinegar. Coconut water. Handling. Clarification. Egg albumin. Small-scale production.

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Synthesis of Ethyl Fatty Alkyl Ethers from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Fatty Alcohols


Author(s): Alice R. M. Acabal and William G. Padolina

Abstract

Ethyl fatty alkyl ethers were synthesized using coconut fatty alcohols as the starting raw materials. The fatty alcohols were converted into their corresponding bromides which were then made to react with ethanolic potassium hydroxide. The average percent yield of ethyl fatty alkyl ethers was 74.30%. The products were characterized using chemical tests, infrared (ir) spectrophotometry, and proton magnetic resonance (pmr) spectroscopy.

Keywords : Ethyl fatty alkyl ethers. Coconut fatty alcohols. Cocos nucifera L.

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