Category Archives: Volume 8 No. 4 (1986)

A Case Study of the Prendes System on Lowland Rice Farms in Barangay Cogon, Baybay, Leyte, Philippines


Author(s): Mary Ann M. Caintic and Pedro T. Armenia

Abstract

For the cropping season covered by the study, the average production of the five rice farmers was 102.72 cavans per hectare. The total net return was P4,285.28. Rice farmers who engaged in the prendes system incurred lower labor cost but allotted one fifth of the produce to the prendes workers. Using the partial budgeting technique, it was found that farm returns with the prendes system decreased in the amount of P507.44. However, the system was found to be beneficial to the farmers because employing contract workers enables them to attend to more economically beneficial tasks such as working on other farms or working in offices.It also benefited the contract workers because it provided them with an exclusive and guaranteed source of employment and income.

Keywords : Prendes system. Rice farmers. Contract workers. Partial budget.

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Screening of Sweet Potato Varieties by Subsistence Farmers in Basey, Samar, Philippines: A Case of Traditional Experimentation in Upland Agriculture


Author(s): R. de Pedro, Jr., C. Lightfoot, D. Apura, M. Acaba and J. Cabiling

Abstract

Seventeen varieties of sweet potato [Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown and evaluated by subsistence upland farmers of Basey, Samar, Philippines. The 14 local and three improved varieties were described by leaf shape and color as well as by the color of their storage root skin and flesh. The farmers’ screening criteria consisted of storage root size; taste and yield; harvest duration; maturity period; vine growth; and resistance to weevils.
The upland farmers prefer sweet potato varieties which are early maturing, high yielding, resistant to weevils, with sweet dry taste and rapid vine growth, and which allow prolonged sequential harvesting with good storage root yield on the creeping vines.

Keywords : Sweet potato. Traditional experimentation. Subsistence upland farmers. Evaluation criteria. Varietal description. Upland agriculture.

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Morphological Characters and Yield of Abaca and Related Musa Clones in Baybay, Leyte, Philippines


Author: Enrique R. Alcober

Abstract

Thirty-six clones of abaca and related Musa species were studied to determine their morphological characters, fiber yield and recovery, and tensile strength of their fibers; and to evaluate the relative merit of each parameter to fiber yield. The different clones showed wide variation in all the characters evaluated. Generally, clones with many suckers per hill produced more floating suckers. Basal and middle stalk circumference, length and weight of stalks, number of leaf sheaths per stalk, number of suckers and harvestable stalks per hill, and fiber recovery significantly influenced fiber yield.

Keywords : Abaca. Musa species. Clones. Hybrids. Morphological characters. Fiber recovery. Fiber yield. Tensile strength.

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Pre- and Post- Infectional Resistance of Sweet Potato to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica


Author: Ruben M. Gapasin

Abstract

Pre-infectional resistance was indicated by fewer nematodes which penetrated the resistant cultivars Jasper, Jewel and W-86 compared to those which entered the susceptible cultivars Binicol and UPR. Post-infectional resistance was shown by delayed or retarded development of nematodes after penetration in Jasper and Jewel or to non-development to maturity in W-86.
The number of eggs per egg mass and the size of egg-laying females in susceptible cultivars were significantly greater that those in resistant cultivars Jasper and Jewel.

Keywords : Sweet potato. Pre- and post-infectional resistance. Meloidogyne incognita. M. javanica.

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Response of Para-Centro Combination to Different Fertilizer Levels Under Coconut


Author(s): Rodolfo G. Escalada and Guindolino R. Gerona

Abstract

Paragrass [ Brachiaria mutica (Forsk.) Stapt] and centrosema (Centrosema pubescens Benth.) were grown in combination under coconut and subjected to different fertilizer treatments. High dry matter yields were obtained during periods when soil moisture, nutrients, and solar radiation had been favorable for plant growth. Regrowth of both grass and legume was adversely affected by water stress coupled with high light intensity when pruning coincided with dry months. This condition depressed production and development of leaves and branches. Centrosema with a creeping growth habit was less affected by periodic pruning compared to paragrass which has an upright growth habit.
The mixed crops responded significantly to application of high amounts of N and K and less of P (400-75-150 and 400-75-300) as manifested by the vigorous and rapid growth of paragrass resulting in its dominance over the legume. At zero or low N level, centrosema dominated the grass. Whenever the former became predominant, the latter grew poorly and vice versa. The highest mean dry matter yield of 9.75 t/ha/year of the mixed crop was obtained in the 400-75-300 and 400-150-300 fertilizer treatments. No significant differences in the growth and dry matter yield of the 100-75-0 treatment and higher fertilizer levels were noted. The unfertilized control plot consistently produced the lowest dry matter yield during the 3-year period. The high dry matter yield obtained in the monocultured paragrass was attributed to the absence of competition with centrosema for light, nutrients, moisture, and space.

Keywords :Vinegar. Para-centro combination. Coconut. Pruning. Regrowth Fertilizer levels.

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Effects of pH on Glucoamylase Production by Aspergillus awamori NRRL 3112 in an Airlift Fermenter


Author(s): Andresito D. Acabal and Ernesto J. del Rosario

Abstract

The effects of pH on batch production of glucoamylase by Aspergillus awamori NRRL 3112 in a 3.5-L airlift fermenter were determined using a mixture of cassava flour and rice bran (1:2 weight ratio) as substrate. Highest production of the enzyme was noted on the fourth day of incubation when the pH of the medium was maintained at 5.5. The volumetric and specific activities of glucoamylase were 124.4 IU/mL and 10.3 IU/mg protein, respectively.

Keywords : Glucoamylase. Aspergillus awamori NRRL 3112. pH. Airlift fermenter. Batch production. Cassava flour. Rice bran.

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