Category Archives: Volume 8 No. 2 (1986)

The Socio-Economic Profile and In-Service Training Needs of Rural Development Workers in the Visayas


Author(s): Antonia Cecilia Y. Sandoval and Saloma M. Binoya

Abstract

A total of 1,233 staff members of rural development and private agencies in Eastern, Western and Central Visayas served as respondents in determining the socio-demographic profile and in-service training needs of rural development workers in the Visayas. Also, 630 client-respondents from 42 municipalities were interviewed to assess the effectiveness of these workers. Seventy-four percent of the respondents are under 40 years of age, 60 percent are males and 52 percent are graduates of agriculture courses. Majority of them have extension work experience of less than 10 years and receive an average monthly salary of less than P700. Fifty-two percent indicated that their service areas cover 1-5 barangays. A significant number of client-respondents rated the rural development workers in their barangays as very effective (32.7%) and moderately effective (49.2%). The rural development workers indicated a need for in-service training programs on agricultural and technical as well as social skills.

Keywords : Rural development workers. Demographic characteristics. Training needs. Client-respondents. Extension methods. Effectiveness. Visayas.

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Root Crops-Legumes Rotation at Varying Fertilizers Levels


Author(s): Alfredo B. Escasinas, Rodolfo G. Escalada and Mario E. Baliad

Abstract

Sweet potato yield was not significantly affected by fertilizer application even at the rate of 90-60-60 kg NPK/ha. Similar result was noted in cassava root yield. Fertilizer application in gabi at the rate of 0-60-60 kg NPK/ha resulted in 4.98 t of corms per hectare. This did not significantly differ from corm yield obtained at 30-60-60 and 90-60-60 kg NPK/ha.
Planting root crops in rotation with legumes even without applying inorganic fertilizers may be employed and reasonable yields can still be obtained. It appears that all the legume crops used were promising and can be used in rotation with the root crops to increase land productivity. However; mungbean, bushbean, and soybean produced the highest gross and net income when planted in rotation with gabi, cassava, and sweet potato, respectively, and contributed greatly to the total income.

Keywords : Crop rotation. Fertilizer levels. Inorganic fertilizer. Legumes. Root crops. Organic matter.

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Effects of Different N:K Ratios and Levels on Sweet Potato


Author(s): Letecia Q. Sarong, Bernadita F. Quirol and Marianito R. Villanueva

Abstract

Generally, plants that received NPK fertilizer had better stand than those that did not receive either N or K. However, nitrogen had greater influence than potassium on the vegetative growth of the plant, Root formation and yield were significantly improved as the amount of potassium was increased up to 90 kg/ha with nitrogen at 30 kg/ha. In this treatment where the N:K ratio is 1:3, the highest root yield of 6.52 t/ha was obtained. Altering the N:K ratio from 1:1 to 3:2 led to maximum leaf development and vine elongation while reducing the ratio from 3:2 to 1:3 favored storage root formation.

Keywords : Sweet Potato. N:K ratio. NPK fertilizer. Herbage yield. Root yield.

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Biology and Host Range of the Taro Planthopper, Tarophagus Proserpina Kirk


Author(s): Cecile Joy Y. Duatin and Lorenzo B. de Pedro

Abstract

The biology of the taro planthopper was studied in the laboratory using taro as food. The total developmental periods of the male and female plant-hoppers are ± 30.86 days and ± 31.29 days, respectively. The insect under¬goes five nymphal instars with a duration of 1.31 and 1.25 days in males and females for the first stadium to 17.58 and 17.50 days for the fifth stadium. The female hopper lives longer than the male. Both sexes are morpho¬logically similar except in size and genital structures. Low percentage mortality (8%) was observed during the first to the third instar.
Possible alternate hosts of taro planthoppers are ornamental gabi, Caladium bicolor (Ait) Vent.; yautia, Xanthosoma sp.; sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam; cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz; and weeds such as milkweed, Euphorbia hirta L; kangkong, Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.; gabi-gabi, Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.) Presl.; and alikbangon, Commelina benghalensis L.
Natural enemies observed on taro planthoppers were ants, a species of predaceous mite belonging to Family Trobidiidae and a minute gastropod.

Keywords : Tarophagus proserpina Kirk. Homoptera. Taro insectpest. Life cycle. Host range.

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Evaluation of Primary Processing Techniques on Local Cassava Flour Production Using the Pedal-Operated Hammer Mill


Author(s): Ramon R. Orias and Floro C. Calub, Jr.

Abstract

Processing of cassava root chips into flour under local conditions can be considered as the most favorable technique in terms of production rate, flour recovery, and processing cost. On the other hand, the technique which involved the pressing of grated roots prior to drying resulted in great loss of free starch; higher labor cost for grating, pressing, and milling; and a slow flour production process. Generally, chips can be processed into refined flour at the rate of 4.41 to 4.83 kg/hr using the pedal-operated hammer mill. Essential flour recovery is placed at 25 to 29% and the process costs only P1.04 to P1.17 per kg. On the other hand, rasped roots or grates can be processed into refined flour at the rate of 2.82 to 2.98 kg/hr with flour recovery of 9 to 11% and processing cost of P1.58 to P1.70 per kg.

Keywords : Cassava (Manihot esculenta). Chips. Grates. Local flour production. Pedal-operated hammer mill.

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