Category Archives: Volume 5 No. 1 (1983)

Prenda System in a Philippine Agricultural Community


Author: Antonia Cecilia Y. Sandoval

Abstract

Prenda is a local credit system which involves temporary transfer of ownership of any property intended to secure the performance of some act, such as the payment of money or the like by the grantor or mortgagee, and which becomes void if the act is not performed agreeably on the terms prescribed by both parties. Interviews and nonparticipant observation conducted among 90 respondents of barangay Talisay, Hilongos, Leyte comprising 46 mortgagors and 44 mortgagees together with 10 key informants revealed 8 different forms of prenda. Traditional rules still bound the prenda system as shown in the practice of fixing no definite maturity date and no written form of agreement. Mortgagors were expected to take possession of mortgaged lands and supply the necessary farm labor, in addition to their responsibility of paying taxes for the mortgaged properties. The schooling of children was identified as the main reason behind the prenda practice with the wife’s decision dominating the idea of engaging in prenda. Generally, the relationship between mortgagor and mortgagee was perceived as good. Most noteworthy among the changes that had taken place with the prenda system was the existence of prendasa kusog. It is a nonmaterial mortgage wherein one’s labor in terms of one’s capacity to produce is being mortgaged to somebody, payable in terms of the products that one can get or raise from his labor. A great bulk of the prenda money was spent on day-to-day expenditures, schooling of children, agricultural production, land purchases and capital for business. Prenda was the most preferred source of capital or credit. Prenda system and the bank were similar only in their function of financial assistance, with the bank perceived to be more disadvantages than the prenda system.

Keywords : Prenda. Credit system. Children’s education. Priority expenditure.

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Effect of Methods of Placement and Rate of Leucaena Leaves Application of Taro


Author(s): Joselito A. Payot, Sergio E. Abit and Luvimin A. Evangelio

Abstract

Depth of placement of ipil-ipil herbage failed to give significant effect on all agronomic and yield characters of upland taro. However, rates of fertilizer application significantly influenced the parameters tested. In general, the agronomic and yield parameters increased with an increase in ipil-ipil herbage application except for non-marketable corms. Notable differences were observed between the unfertilized and ipil-ipil treated plants.

Keywords : Leucaena leucocephala. Fertilizer source. Method of placement. Taro. Agronomic characters. Yield and yield components.

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Factors Affecting Household Demand for Sweet Potato in Two Regions of the Philippines


Author: Jose M. Alkuino, Jr

Abstract

Factors affecting the demand for sweet potato were determined through a consumer survey of 1200 households from 2 regions of the Philippines. Using the regression technique, the demand functions were generated and the demand coefficients estimated. Separate regression analysis was made using the double log form for low income and high income households. The four relevant variables found to affect household demand for sweet potato included income of the head of the household, household size, retail price of sweet potato and age of the principal shopper. Sweet potato was found to be a superior good for lower income groups and inferior good at higher income levels.

Keywords : Sweet potato. Demand factors. Elasticity.

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Genetic Variability in Clonal Populations of Java Citronella Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt


Author(s): K.K.Singh and N.K. Gupta

Abstract

The nature and extent of variability and heritability were estimated in clonal populations of Java citronella, Cymbdpogon winterianus Jowitt. wide range of variability was observed. Genotypic variability varied between 0.02 for oil content and 10519.17 for yield of green herb. High genotypic variability was usually associated with high genotypic coefficient of variability, indicating a high latent potential for advancement by selection. Heritability estimates were high for height (85.45), leaf area (92.56), yield of green herb (86.17) and oil yield (88.97); medium for number of leaves (42.50) and oil content (41.10); and low for number of tillers (18.55). Genetic advance varied between 0.19 for oil content end 196.13 for yield of green herb. The value of genetic advance as per cent of mean was highest for oil yield (48.03) and lowest for number of tillers (3.13). High heritability values were usually associated with high genetic advance, indicating that clonal selection could be an effective method in improving plant characters such as height, leaf area, yields of green herb and oil.

Keywords : Cymbopogon winterianus J. Genotypic variance. Pheno-typic variance. Heritability. Genetic advance. Coefficients of variability.

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Cultural Management Studies on Upland Taro: Effects of Cultivation Systems on Growth and Yield of Taro and Incidence of Associated Weeds


Author(s): J.R. Pardales, Jr and F.G. Villamayor, Jr

Abstract

Two croppings were conducted to determine the effects of 2 levels of land preparation and different post planting cultivation systems on the performance of upland taro and weed incidence. Plowing and harrowing once or twice with a carabao-drawn plow resulted in the same corm yield. The vegetative growth, biological yield of main plants, weight of rhizomes, number of rhizomes/m2 and harvest index were also not affected by levels of land preparation. The different postplanting cultivation systems likewise did not significantly affect the above parameters including main corm yield. This effect was attributed largely to the adequate weed control provided by the cultivation systems. Off-barring with carabao-drawn plow at 2 weeks after planting (WAP) + handweeding at 3 WAP + hilling-up at 5 WAP consistently gave high return of investment and required least cost inproducing 1 kg of main corms. Handweeding was the most expensive operation. Apparently, one plowing and harrowing is sufficient for upland taro as long as postplanting cultivation is employed with adequate weed control measures.

Keywords : Land preparation. Postplanting cultivation, Tillage. Cultivation system. Weed control. Return of investment.

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Resource Productivity Estimates on Lowland Rice Farms in Baybay, Leyte


Author: Pedro T. Armenia

Abstract

Estimates using the Cobb-Douglas production function indicate that aside from irrigation; land tenure, type of farming and farm size had no significant effect in improving the technological efficiency in both dry and wet seasons. The significant effect of irrigation in improving the productivity of resource-use was attributed to the adequacy of water supply for irrigation in both seasons. In the lowland farms, farmers were not allocating the resource inputs efficiently particularly nitrogen applied, land cultivated and human labor employed. Farm income in the lowland rice farms can still be increased by adjusting the level of inputs used. Addition of nitrogen applied and reduction of the current labor employed appear to be some of the adjustment possibilities.

Keywords : Productivity estimates. Resource allocation. Cobb-Douglas function. Lowland rice farms.

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Insect Pests Associated with Winged Bean in Ghana


Author(s): Kwame Afreh-Nuamah

Abstract

Insects associated with 17 varieties of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) at preflowering and post-flowering are presented. Based on the study, the most serious insect pests were the thrips Taeniothrips sp., which sucked the plant sap and caused the followers to and shrivel; green soldier bug, Nezara viridula Linn., and bean pyramid Maruca testulalis Geyer, which fed on the pods and invariably caused their drop. Generally, most of the insects associated with this plant fed on the leaves and stem.

Keywords : Insect pests. Winged bean. Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC

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