Category Archives: Volume 4 No. 3 (1982)

Effect of Chlorine Sources and Ammonium Sulfate on the Growth of Coconut Seedlings Grown on Four Soil Types


Author(s): Antonio V. Veloso and Tung Ly

Abstract

Fertilizer requirements of coconut seedlings belonging to Baybay Tall variety grown on four most Important “coconut soil” types (Palo clay loam, Maasin clay, Gulnbala-on clay and Fara-on clay) in the Island of Leyte were studied. Four fertilizer rates were tried, namely: 30 g (NH4),SO4 + 35 g KCI, 60 g (NH4),SO4 + 70 g KCI, 30 g (NH4),SO4 + 30 g NaCI, and 60 g (NH4)2SO4 + 60 g NaCI per seedling. Results showed that applica-tion of 30 g (NH4)2SO4 + 30 g NaCl produced taller seedlings with bigger girths and lesser degree of leaf spot/blight disease Infection compared to unfertilized seedlings. Other fertilizer treatments did not cause better seedling growth than did the above mentioned rate. However, none of the fertilizer treatments exerted any significant effect on leaf production rate and number of days to leaf splitting. These observations were true regard-less of soil types. Application of 30 g NaCI was found to be more effective than 35 g KCI and as effective as 70 g KCI In reducing the disease incidence. Considering both the effectiveness and cost of NaCI, (NH4),SO4 NaCI at 30 g each per seedling is recommended for coconut seedlings grown on soils in Leyte. This rate is about half of the national recommended rate.

Keywords : Coconut seedling. Baybay Tall, soil type. Fertilizer level. Chlorine source. Ammonium sulfate.

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Effect of Antioxidants and Fungistatic Agents on Rancidity in Dried Split-Salted Bisugo (Nemipterus taeniopterus Cuvier and Valencienes)


Author(s): Dennis C. Varron and E.C. Sison

Abstract

The effects of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) and fungistatic agents potassium sorbate, sodium propionate and sodium benzoate on the stability of dried bisugo against oxidative rancidity were evaluated using sensory and chemical analyses as indices. Each of the antioxidants and fungistatic agents was applied at a level of 0.1% in saturated brine. Sen-sory evaluation indicated that the antioxidants exerted potent antioxidative effect while the fungistats showed accelerating effects on the development of oxidative rancidity of the dried samples. Chemical analyses, TBA (thiobarbituric acid) and peroxide tests supported and confirmed the results indicated by the sensory data. The 7 treatments could be arranged, in the order of decreasing antioxidative effect as: BHA > PG >BHT > control > sodium benzoate >potassium sorbate >sodium propionate.

Keywords : Bisugo. Nemipterus taeniopterus. Antioxidant. Fungistat. Rancidity.

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Biology of the Greater Spike Moth, Tirathaba rulivena Walker


Author(s): Lorenza B. de Pedro, Dely P. Gapasin and Lucia M. Maramara

Abstract

The biology of the greater spike moth Tirathaba rufivena Walker, an important insect pest of coconut, was studied in the laboratory. The Insect underwent 5 larval festers and Its developmental period from egg hatching to adult emergence varied slightly between sexes, the males with a mean of 33.65 days and the females 34.91 days. The adult male and female moths lived for an average of 4.29 days and 5.25 days, respectively. The greater spike moth larva is cruciform, brownish white with alternating 2 and 4 brown dots on each body segment. The adult Is a light brown moth with green reflection and bright red veins on the forewings. A tiny black braconid parasite was found attacking the larva of the greater spike moth.

Keywords : Tirathaba rufivena. Insect pest. Coconut. Development. Morphology. Natural enemy.

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Time of Naphthalic Anhydride Application and its Influence on Thiobencarb Selectivity in Rice


Author: Rolinda L. Talatala

Abstract

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine thiobencarb (S-4-chlorobenzyl diethylthiocarbamate) toxicity to IR-36 and RD-19 rice cultivars as affected by the time of NA (1,8-naphthalic anhydride) application. Both cultivars responded similarly to time and sequence of NA and thiobencarb application. Application of both NA and thiobencarb at planting was the least injurious to the plants and appeared to be the most promising treatment. NA treatment at planting followed by thiobencarb at 3 days after planting seemed a good alternative If simultaneous application is not possible. These results imply that the antidote must be applied at the same time or ahead of the herbicide to reduce if not prevent herbicide damage to rice.

Keywords : Naphthalic anhydride. Antidote. Time of application. Thio-bencarb. Herbicide. Selectivity. Rice.

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Isolation and identification of Acetic Acid and Lactic Acid Bacteria from Tuba and Lambanog Toddy


Author(s): Jesusito L. Lim and William L. Fernandez

Abstract

Tuba and lambanog toddy were sampled for identification of acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria using tryptone glucose yeast extract brom-cresol green actidione agar, Beijerinck agar with Andrade’s indicator plus actidione and tomato juice agar plus actidione. Acetic acid bacteria isolated from tuba and lambanog toddy were identified as Gluconobacter oxydans (Acetobacter oxydans), Acetobacter aceti subsp. xylinum (A. xylinum) and A. peroxydans with G. oxydans predominating. A. peroxy – dans was the predominant acetic acid bacterium In tuba and lambanog toddy on the day of purchase and G. oxydans 3 days after purchase. Among the lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus hilgardii, L. fermentum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were present with L. hilgardii predominating. L. hilgardii was also the predominant species present in tuba and lambanog toddy 6 days after purchase.

Keywords : Tuba. Lambanog toddy. Coconut sap. Alcoholic beverage. Bacterial identification. Acetic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria.

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Life History and Behavior of Eggplant Fruit Borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee


Author(s): Anita M. Maureal, Ma. Flerida A. Carino, Lualhati M. Noriel and Nelson M. Esguerra

Abstract

The life history and behavior of the eggplant fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee, were studied in the laboratory with pieces of eggplant fruit as food. The insect had five larval instars, with a total developmental period of 23.45 days for the Males and 24.39 days for the females. Fecundity was 210 eggs per female, with an average of 65.18 eggs laid per day in 3-4 days of oviposition. Adult females lived for 9.08 days, while males had a shorter longevity at 7.87 days. The insect was able to complete its life cycle on Irish potato tubers and tomato fruits, but had longer developmental period and shorter adult life span on these hosts than on eggplants.

Keywords : Leucinodes orbonalis. Eggplant fruit borer . Life History. Behavior. Development. Potential hosts.

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Irrigation Water Management Studies for Rice by Computer Simulation


Author(s): M.C. Escalante, H.P. Johnson and C. Anderson

Abstract

A computer simulation model developed using the concept of rotation irrigation was used to estimate the optimal irrigation time interval, determine the effects of subdividing the irrigable area into rotation area on the yield of rice, estimate the maximum area that would give the highest yield and the optimal area that could be put under rice production for a river water source. The model Was run using a 25-year data on rainfall, pan evaporation and stream flow. Results Indicated that subdividing the irrigable area into rotation areas was not necessary when water supply was adequate. Rotation interval of 1 to 8 days did not significantly affect the yield of rice; however, an interval of more than 8 days considerably decreased the yield. For the irrigable area to be optimal, It was necessary to divide the area into 4 rotation areas which were irrigated at 4-day intervals. There was no significant difference between rotation Irrigation and continuous irrigation schemes for small irrigable areas when water supply was adequate. However, rotation irrigation provided for a significantly greater optimal irrigable area. It also gave significantly higher production for large irrigable areas when water supply became Inadequate.

Keywords : Rice irrigation. Irrigation simulation. Computer simulation model. Continuous irrigation. Rotation irrigation. water management.

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Performance of Taro Under Lowland Condition as Affected by Genotype, Nutritional Status and Population Density


Author(s): J. R. Pardales Jr., M. R. Villanueva and F. R. Cotejo Jr.

Abstract

The local taro variety Kalpao performed better than the Introduced variety Big Lehua. Kalpao had higher yield, shorter growing period and was relatively resistant to adverse growing conditions than Big Lehua. Nitrogen was a more Important nutrient than P and K for growth and increased yield of lowland taro. Plants which received higher rates of N, regardless of the levels of Pspan style=”font-size:70%;vertical-align:sub;”>2Ospan style=”font-size:70%;vertical-align:sub;”>5, and Kspan style=”font-size:70%;vertical-align:sub;”>2O, consistently grew taller and produced larger leaf area. Corm yield was significantly Increased with increasing rate of N. Yield of plants applied with P2O5, and K2 O but without N was not significantly different from that obtained from the unfertilized plants. Corm yield Increased proportionately with Increase In plant population. Yield of taro appeared to be associated with the number rather than size of the corms at harvest.

Keywords : Taro. Colocasia esculenta. Kalpao. Blg Lehua. Fertilizer level. Population density.

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Fungi Associated with Leucaena Seeds a. their Influence on Germination


Author(s): M. Satish Chandra Prabhu, P. Venkatasubbaiah, K.M. Safeeulla and H.S. Shettv

Abstract

Seed health analysis was conducted on 5 different cultivars of Leucaena leucocephala, Twenty-seven different fungal species of both field pathogenic and storage importance were recorded. Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. solani, Verticillium sp., Trichoderma viridae and T. harzianum were among the most important field fungi while Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. candidus, A. fumigatus, A. ruber, A. versicolor and Penicillium sp. were some of those with seed storage significance. Of the 3 standard methods employed for the seed health test, standard blotter method was found superior to deep freeze and agar plate system. Hot water treatment at 85°C for 5 min was shown to ward off most of the seed-borne fungi and retain the viability of the seeds.

Keywords : Leucaena leucocephala. Fungal incidence. Seed health analysis. Standard blotter method. Deep freeze method. Agar plating.

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