Category Archives: Volume 4 No. 1 (1982)

Leyte Farmers’ Perception of and Expectation from the National Coconut Planting/Replanting Program


Author: Belita T. Amihan

Abstract

Three hundred coconut farmers in 5 municipalities of Leyte, Philippines were interviewed to find out their perceptions of and expectations from the National Coconut Planting/Replanting Program (NCP / RP). The overall perception of the respondents towards the NCP/ RP was low specifically on its implementing policies. Thirty-five percent of the farmers agreed to have their coconut lands replanted and one-half of this number wanted to be among the first recipients of the program. Almost 50% of the farmers anticipated that the program would have a low chance of success in accomplishing its objectives. This low expectation was attributed to (1) inadequate supply of high-yielding coconut varieties; (2) inadequate price support for copra; (3) lack of readiness on the part of coconut farmers to adopt the program; and (4) the high risk associated with the adoption of the high-yielding coconut varieties. Among the respondents’ suggestions to carry out effectively the NCP / RP were: disseminate more information about the program, strengthen the program’s management and technical delivery services, and implement the corresponding price increase for copra when replanting begins.

Keywords : Coconut farmers. Perception. Expectation. National Coconut Planting/Replanting Program.

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Physico-Chemical Evaluation of the Natural Stability of Coconut Milk Emulsion


Author(s): Oscar D. Monera and E. J. del Rosario

Abstract

The stability of coconut milk emulsion against creaming at different pH levels was evaluated in terms of the concentration of oil, protein, total phosphorus and lipid phosphorus retained in the aqueous phase after a 6-hr standing. Better stability was generally observed in the pH regions where the coconut proteins were more soluble. Two stability maxima were observed: the higher one at pH 1.5-2.0 and the lower one at pH 6.5. Minimum stability was observed in the pH range of 3.5-6.0. The correlation coefficients between the oil concentration and lipid phosphorus, total phosphorus and protein concentrations were 0.923, 0.933 and 0.820, respectively, at the pH range of 1.0 to 10. At the pH range of 1.0 to 8.5 the correlation coefficient for protein was a very high 0.971. These results tend to show that there was a relatively tight and pH independent association between the oil and the phospholipids but the oil-protein association was more pH dependent.

Keywords : Coconut milk. Natural stability. Emulsion stability index. Correlation coefficient.

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Effects of Drying Platform Elevation and Size of Meat on the Rate of Copra Drying


Author(s): Aida C. Mantilla and Tung Ly

Abstract

Among the different drying platform elevations tested (0.9 m, 1.08 m, 1.24 m), the 1.24 m elevation was found to produce copra of lowest moisture content when drying did not exceed 16 hr. The copra moisture content was not significantly affected by elevations when drying was prolonged to 18.5 to 23.5 hr. Meat sizes did not bring about any significant difference in the drying rate. The NIST Modified Dryer with coconut shells as fuel was used for drying copra.

Keywords : Copra. NIST Modified Dryer. Platform elevation. Meat size. Drying rate.

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Growth and Survival of Containerized Moluccan Sau Seedlings Grown in Organic Containers


Author: Manuel H. Reyes

Abstract

Moluccan sau seedlings grown in coir dust container under green-house conditions performed better in terms of height, diameter, number of leaves and shoots than those grown from bagasse, rice straw and sawdust materials. However, in the field phase, rice straw container-grown seedlings attained the highest growth (height and stem diameter) six months after field planting. Early biodegradation of the containers as well as the nutrient content present in the materials hastened the growth of the seedlings. However, such effect on growth was not sustained when the containers completely degraded between the fifth and sixth month. All the treatments did not significantly affect the survival of seedlings during the first to sixth month after planting.

Keywords : Moluccan sau. Albizia falcataria. Organic container. Growth and survival.

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Inheritance of Resistance of Corn to Downy Mildew Caused by Perenosclerospora philippinensis (Weston) Shaw


Author(s): Othello B. Capuno and Azucena L. Carpena

Abstract

Evaluation of 36 entries for downy mildew reaction revealed significant differences due to location and genotype components; genotype-environment interaction was also detected. The interactions of general and specific combining ability components with locations were highly significant. The presence of partial or incomplete dominance governing the resistance of corn to downy mildew was detected using the variance/covariance graphic analysis. Estimation of genetic parameter detected major contribution of additive gene action in downy mildew resistance. The average degree of dominance as measured by (H1/D)1/2 was partial. Broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were 45.67 and 39.23%, respectively.

Keywords : Corn. Zea mays: Downy mildew. Perenosclerospora philippinensis. Inheritance. Variance/Covariance analysis. In-complete dominance. Genetic parameters. Broad sense heritability. Narrow sense heritability. General combining ability. Specific combining ability.

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Elongation Response of IR-36 and RD-19 Rice Cultivars to Variation in Site of Naphthalic Anhydride and Thiobencarb Application


Author: Rolinda L. Talatala

Abstract

The effect of differential application of naphthalic anhydride or NA (1, 8-naphthalic anhydride) and thiobencarb (S-4-chlorobenzyl diethylthio-carbamate) in IR-36 and RD-19 rice seedlings was determined in pot trials under laboratory conditions. The two cultivars responded similarly to NA or thiobencarb treatment in terms of inhibited root growth when the site of application was varied. However, IR-36 cultivar exhibited greater degree of inhibition than RD-19. The effective treatment sites were the plot and mesocotyl for NA; and the root, mesocotyl and coleoptile for thiobencarb. Regardless of the site of treatment, nearly all treatments inhibited root elongation, but not shoot growth. The main target site of NA and thiobencarb appeared to be in the root.

Keywords : Rice. IR-36 and RD-19 cultivars. Laboratory experiment. Differential application. Thiobencarb. Naphthalic anhydride. Antidote. Site of treatment. Inhibition. Elongation.

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Isolation and Characterization of the Insecticidal Fraction from Leaf Extracts of Thithonia diversifolia A. Gray


Author(s): Ma. Flerida A. Carino and Belen Morallo-Rejesus

Abstract

The different fractions of the acetone extract of Tithonia diversifolia A. Gray leaves were separated by preparative layer chromatography after precipitation of pigments and more polar constituents with lead acetate. The insecticidal fraction was identified through insect bio-assay using Dysclercus cingulatus Fab., Tribolium castaneum Herbsr. and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the active fraction v46, obtained for these species and for Plutella xylostella L. and Spodoptera exempta Walker. The toxicity of the semi-purified isolate was only 24.47% less toxic (LD50 = 1.3657 mg/g) than malathion (LD50 = 1.0972 mg/g) to P. xylostella, but was much less toxic than the said insecticide to the other test species. The toxicity of the isolate to P. xylostella was comparable with values obtained for synthetic Insecticides used for this insect Characterization of the active fraction suggested the presence of a gamma-lactone with a hydroxyl group attached to the ring or to an alkyl substituent. Unsaturation may be present in the ring itself, or external to the ring, alpha to the carbonyl.

Keywords : Tithonia diversifolia. Botanical insecticide. Isolation Pre-parative layer chromatography. Toxicity. Median lethal dose. Gas chromatogram. Infrared spectra. Gamma lactone.

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