Category Archives: Volume 38 No. 2 (2016)

Floral Composition and Timber Stock of Forest In The Samar Island Natural Park

Author: Justino M. Quimio


Samar Island Natural Park (SINP) is the most important biodiversity refuge Samar Island. This assessment characterized floral diversity status in SINP and provided recommendations on how such resources can be better managed and protected against destruction. Five watersheds, namely: Taft, Can-avid, Basey, Suribao and Catubig were sampled. In each watershed, a transect line with 25 plots spaced at 200 m interval was used in the survey. Plot size was 20m x 20m. Trees 10 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH) and bigger were measured for stem diameter, merchantable height and tree height. This was for computation of timber volume. The species composition in 3 vegetative layers, such as tree layer, undergrowth and ground layer, was determined using the standard Braun-Blanquet methodology.
The forest stands in the five watersheds was dominated by dipterocarp species. Of the 212 timber tree species in the tree layer, 35 species had diameter of at least 60 cm. Eighty-six percent of individual trees were dipterocarps, in 14 species. Shorea squamata and Shorea polysperma was the most frequent. Non-dipterocarp species dominated in number at the lower DBH range, particularly in the 10-20 cm and 21-40 cm DBH range. The forest of Samar still has high volume of commercial-size timber.
Forests in the 5 watersheds differed in species composition and structure. The absence of access roads to interior barangays contributed to the conservation of forests. The transport system, such as presence of access road and connecting transport facilities to the main roads had influence to the degree of poaching activities. Areas that had access only through motorboats in shallow river had lowest incidence of poaching.

Keywords : Natural park, Philippine flora, biodiversity

Patterns and Trends of Development Communication Studies Conducted by Students of a State University in the Philippines

Author(s): Avril Adrianne DG Madrid1 and Editha G. Cagasan2


As part of their academic requirements, graduate and undergraduate development communication (DevCom) students of the Visayas State University (VSU) in the Philippines are required to write a thesis. This study aimed to identify patterns and trends in DevCom research by VSU students. It examined the development context, focus, theoretical bases, methods used and the major findings of their research. A total of 203 studies were content analyzed. Results showed that between 1979 to 1989, most of the students’ research were on agriculture, mass media and health. In the recent years, there has been an accommodation of other development issues including health, environment and information communication technology. Most of the studies, however, focused mainly on two areas of communication research – audience and effects. Although communication books list more than 200 communication theories, only 18 were used in the students’ research. Most of the studies used quantitative methods, but an increase in the number of qualitative studies or a combination of the two was noticed in recent years. A good number of the studies tested relationships among variables. The major findings of most of these studies were: (1) information exposure significantly influenced knowledge, attitude and practice; and (2) the socio-demographic variables that most often emerged to have significant relationship with knowledge, attitude and practice were age, sex, educational attainment and income.

Keywords : DevCom studies, research agenda, content analysis

Research Productivity in Development Communication in the Philippines

Author(s): Rotacio S. Gravoso1, Ian A. Navarrete2 and Ian Kim P. Gahoy1


Pioneered in the 70s by Nora Quebral of the University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Development Communication (DevCom) is now recognized globally as a scientific discipline. As such, it is now a part of the research and development (R&D) agenda of national and international research organizations. For almost four decades, no study has been conducted to find out the research productivity in DevCom in the Philippines. We conducted in-depth analysis on the total number of publications and total number of citations of DevCom publications collected from Thomson ISI database. From the 70s to the present, 74 articles were published. The most dominant domains were on health communication (31.08 %) and agricultural communication (29.72%). On the other hand, the most predominant approaches were social mobilization (44.59%) and behavior change (41.89%). With 74 articles, it can be concluded that research productivity of DevCom in the Philippines is low. This paper presents ways to improve publication performance in DevCom in the country. Future studies may focus on identifying the factors that facilitate or impede publication performance of DevCom researchers and educators.

Keywords : Research productivity; DevCom approaches; DevCom domains

Assessment of Community Vulnerability to Riverbank Erosion in Esperanza, Agusan Del Sur, Philippines

Author(s): Lenard P. Dapar11, Glenn Arthur A. Garcia2, Allyssa G. Mandras1, Maricel M. Balo1 and Chime Mora-Garcia2


As a natural phenomenon, most rivers constantly undergo a series of erosion processes along their banks. Erosion, could be triggered by anthropogenic activities. This study assessed the vulnerability of selected communities in the Municipality of Esperanza, Agusan del Sur, Philippines in response to prevalent riverbank erosion at Wawa river. This study partly used the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) and also used a structured interview schedule to gather information about the socio-economic characteristics, distance of houses and agricultural lands from the river, and practices and strategies against riverbank erosion. Information gathered were categorized into sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity. Results showed that barangay Crossing Luna was most vulnerable in terms of sensitivity and exposure while Piglawigan was more vulnerable in terms of adaptive capacity. On the other hand, riverbanks of barangay Dakutan and Crossing Luna are more vulnerable to erosion. In general, Crossing Luna was found to be the most vulnerable among the three communities with a combined index of 0.02. The study also showed that the LVI is a relevant tool for decision making in determining which community needs most help in times of calamity due to riverbank erosion.

Keywords : adaptive capacity, exposure, riverbank erosion, sensitivity, vulnerability, Livelihood Vulnerability Index

Dynamics of Plankton Community in Banahao-Palhi River in Leyte, Philippines

Author(s): Marita I. Galinato and Julissah C. Evangelio


Plankton consists of microscopic plants “phytoplankton” and animals “zooplankton“. They play a principal role in aquatic food web and zooplankton indicators of ecosystem change. Phytoplankton are the food source for zooplankton, and together, form the base of ocean and river food chains. In Leyte, few researches have been conducted in plankton specifically in river systems. The study was conducted to understand phytoplankton dynamics by first studying their occurrence, composition, and abundance. Three sampling sites were established along Banahao-Palhi river during dry and wet seasons. A total of 162 plankter samples were analyzed in the laboratory. Dry season sampling showed 99 pelagic algae belonging to 58 genera across sites. In all sites, the commonly occurring diatoms were Biddulphia, Meridion, and Synedra . For the green algae (Chlorophyceae) group, Groenbladia was the most common genus, while in the blue-greens (Cyanophyceae), Nostoc. In wet season, 165 pelagics in 68 genera were observed. Bacillariophyceae got the most number of pelagic algae in all sites for both seasons. For true zooplankton, eight families were recorded during the dry season with four, belonging to Rotifera, two under Copepoda and one, from Cladocera. Similar groups were found during wet season. Larvae of insects and benthics were found part of the zooplankton community. Insect groups include Orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Megaloptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Non-insect groups include Arachnida, Amphipoda, Gastropoda and fish larvae. The Rotifera is the commonly occurring holoplankton with six genera identified. However, the copepods were the most abundant in Brgy. Palhi while protozoans, in Brgy. Banahao.

Keywords : abundance, Banahao-Palhi river, holoplankton, pelagic algae, phytoplankton

Lodging Resistance and Yield Performance of Two Traditional Rice Varieties Applied with Nitrogen and Paclobutrazol

Author(s): Ariel G. Mactal and Justo G. Canare Jr.


Vulnerability of rice growing areas to strong typhoons coupled by the susceptibility of traditional rice varieties to lodging lead to low yield and poor quality of harvested rice. To address these problems, two experiments using factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design were conducted during the wet season to determine the effects of paclobutrazol and nitrogen on the lodging resistance, agro-morphological characteristics and yield performance of two traditional rice varieties Elon-elon and Palawan Red. Application of increasing concentration of paclobutrazol did not significantly affect the percentage filled spikelets per panicle, number of spikelets per panicle, weight of 1000 grains, dry matter yield, harvest index and grain yield. At all concentrations of paclobutrazol, Palawan red had the longest first and fourth internodes, more unfilled spikelets per panicle, heavier 1000 grains weight and higher leaf area index than Elonelon. On the other hand, smaller stem diameter, more productive tillers per hill and longer panicles were obtained from Elon-elon than Palawan red. Elon-elon applied with increasing rates of nitrogen in combination with 500 ppm paclobutrazol had bigger stem diameter, higher productive tillers per hill, higher number of filled spikelets per panicle, higher percentage filled spikelets per panicle, longer panicles, higher harvest index and higher grain yield than Palawan red. Apparently, Palawan red had longer first, second and third internodes, more unfilled spikelets per panicle, heavier 1000 grain weight and higher leaf area index than Elon-elon. Applications of 30 and 60 kg N per ha had significantly higher lodging index than the untreated plants. Harvest index and grain yield were lowest in plants applied with 30 and 60 kg N per ha, attributable to high lodging index. Paclobutrazol is effective in shortening the length of the lower internodes and inhibits stem elongation resulting to shorter plants with increased lodging resistance. This ultimately produced higher yield than those plants that lodged. Culm strength was reduced by high rates of nitrogen causing significant increase in lodging index. The time of lodging is crucial in predicting the yield performance of the plants. Early lodging resulted to huge reduction in yield while it has little or no effect on yield when it occurs at later stages of the rice crop.

Keywords : lodging index, Paclobutrazol, lodging incidence, stem elongation

Characterization of Ruminant Husbandry Systems in Protected Areas of Batanes Islands, Philippines

Author(s): Warren D. Come1, Eva Schlecht2 and Katja Brinkmann3


The Batanes islands are few of the remaining preserved natural landscape and seascape areas in the Philippines. The major source of income in the islands is ruminant husbandry. The study was conducted to document and assess the traditional husbandry systems in these areas with the specific aim of providing baseline data for policymaking and future intensification projects. Six villages were identified as study sites, and ten households per village with a total of 60 respondents were interviewed using a guided questionnaire. Findings from this survey revealed two husbandry systems namely: pasture based and mixed pasture based systems. The dominant livestock species in the islands were cattle, goat and carabao, quantified as Total Livestock Unit (TLU). The major reason for raising ruminants in the islands was for food. Tethering, feeding and breeding were the major husbandry activities done by the heads of the families and their children. Pasture based system mostly relied on vegetation in the wild and grassland areas while mixed-pasture based system added more plant protein sources from crop residues including cassava, sweet potato and corn. There were no feed and fodder materials coming from external feed resources. In general, traditional ruminant husbandry systems are still practiced by most farmers in Batanes. These practices contribute to the maintenance of the good landscape in the many areas of the islands.

Keywords : ruminant husbandry systems, protected areas, Batanes islands

The Rising Carbon Footprint of Philippine Households: An Estimation Using Consumption Expenditure and Input-Output Analysis

Author: Moises Neil V. Seriño1,2


This study aimed to estimate the carbon footprint of Philippine households from consuming various goods and services. Data from the Philippine Input-Output Table and Global Trade Analysis Project’s carbon emission coefficients were used to extract the carbon intensities of different economic sectors. The embodied carbon emission from different consumption items was estimated by tracing the associated emission down to its intermediate inputs used in the production. The total household carbon footprint was derived by summing up the carbon emission from each consumption category. Results showed that the highest carbon emitting goods consumed by households are related to expenditure on fuel, light and transportation while nondurable and recreation goods were the least carbon intensive. Different socio-economic characteristics of the households matter in explaining total household carbon footprint. By using non-parametric estimation, results showed a strong positive relationship between household carbon footprint and income but the effect varies across the distribution. This implies that further increases in carbon footprint are to be expected as households get richer. Policy makers should devise policies promoting green consumption or low-carbon lifestyle; else it is likely that households will be leading a carbon intensive lifestyle as they become more affluent.

Keywords : carbon emission, input-output, household consumption, Environmental Kuznets Curve

Frond Pruning Enhanced The Growth and Yield of Eight-Year-Old Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

Author(s): Junito P. Marcelino and Elvie V. Diaz


Pruning of fronds in oil palms is the subject of interest in oil palm farming that is often based on individual experience and casual observation rather than experimental evidence. Frond pruning in a scientific approach pose useful information in oil palm industry. This study was conducted to find out if frond pruning affects growth and yield of eightyear-old oil palm plantation owned by Kenram Industrial Development Incorporated (KIDI), Isulan, Sultan Kudarat, Philippines from 2011-12. This experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with four treatments replicated three times. Standard guide on fertilization, cultural management practices, control of insect pest and diseases, and harvesting of bunches for oil palms were followed. Fronds were pruned according to the number of fronds retained per treatment except for those without pruning. Agronomic and yield parameters were gathered, statistically analyzed while variances among treatments were subjected to DMRT. Frond pruning in oil palm plants significantly affected fruit bunch production specifically on the number and weight of harvested bunches. However, no significant effect was observed on its agronomic characteristics. The retention of 32 – 40 fronds per tree produced more and heavier bunch compared to plants with 24 fronds and plants without frond pruning. Optimum fronds are required to obtained better yield. Palms without frond pruning and those with excessive pruning below 32 fronds produced lesser and lighter bunches.

Keywords : bunches, fronds, frond pruning, oil palm, rainfall

Growth and Yield Performance of Irrigated Lowland Rice NSIC Rc218 (Oryza sativa L.) as Influenced by Water and Fertilizer Applications

Author(s): Ulysses A. Cagasan1 and Nemesio V. Tamayo2


For better rice productivity there is a need to address the problems on water shortage and nutrient management. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield performance and the interaction effect between water and fertilizer applications on irrigated lowland rice (NSIC Rc218); to determine the relationships of other plant characters which are contributory to yield; and to assess the cost and return of irrigated lowland rice production ha-1 as influenced by water and fertilizer applications.
Two methods of water application were evaluated and results showed that alternate wet and dry methods (AWD) were able to save 19.02% of the total water received by the rice plants compared to continuous flooded condition. Grain yield of irrigated lowland rice (NSIC Rc218) was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 1.84 t ha-1 which is higher by 35% when applied with recommended inorganic fertilizer at the rate of 100-60-60 kg N, P20 and K20 ha-1 (T2) than that of unfertilized plants (T1).
Correlation analysis showed that grain yield is positively correlated to the number of productive tillers panicle, panicle length (cm), % filled spikelet panicle-1, weight of 1000 grains (g) and LAI but not on the number of spikelets panicle-1. Plants applied with 100-60-60 kg N, P20 and K20 ha-1 (T2) and those applied with 75% RRIF + 25% RRVC (T4) generated the highest net income of PhP 66,915.00 ha-1 and PhP 60,440.00 ha-1 respectively, than unfertilized plants of PhP 40,375.00 ha-1.

Keywords : Flooded, AWD, water and fertilizer applications, performance and fertilizer