Category Archives: Volume 37 No. 2 (2015)

Farming Practices of Rice Farmers in Can-Avid and Dolores, Eastern Samar

Author: Rogelio B. Robedizo


The research aimed to account for the rice technologies practiced by farmers of Canavid and Dolores, Eastern Samar. These two municipalities are considered as the rice major product owns of Eastern Samar. It sought to determine the degree of adoption of modern and indigenous rice technologies and to identify the problems met by the farmers in using said technologies. A total of 57 farmers served as respondents. Percentage, means, ranks and ranges were used to analyse the data.
The mean age of the respondents was 54.94 years old with intermediate as the highest educational attainment with 5.43 years of formal schooling. Majority were married with 17.68averageyearsof farming. The average farm size was 1.26 has.
The respondents prepared their rice field by trampling, use of native seeds and by winnowing basket in cleaning the palay with a weighted mean score of 2.04, 2.5, and 2.23 respectively. Results also revealed that 71.05 percent were unsuccessful and 28.93 percent were successful or highly motivated while majority of the modern rice farmers were considered successful or highly motivated (67%).
Lack of knowledge and skills about rice farming, farm implements, and limited capital were the problems met by farmers.

Keywords : indigenous rice technologies, farming practices

Knowledge Sharing Behavior of Rice Farmers in the Cyber-Villages

Author(s): Ludito V. Ramirez1 and Ma. Theresa H. Velasco2


The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has established cyber-villages in an effort to speed up dissemination and adoption of rice technologies. How farmers share information obtained from the sources is less documented. In this paper, we present an analysis of the knowledge sharing behavior of rice farmers in the Cyber-villages — the communities assisted by IRRI for its innovative technology transfer modalities in Infanta, Quezon. The study involved 76 rice farmers from three LGU- and three NGO-managed barangays. Results revealed that both LGU-managed and NGO-managed cyber-village farmers had highly positive knowledge seeking behavior and moderately positive knowledge donating behavior. It indicated that they were more of knowledge seekers than knowledge donors. The latent networks are predominantly star and linear chain, characterized by sparse central hubs and non-reciprocated ties. The central actors are limited to the intermediaries, farmer-leaders, and emerging farmer-consultants.

Keywords : Knowledge sharing ties, knowledge donating, knowledge seeking rice ; information transfer, social network analysis

Variety and Sulfite Levels Affect Microbial and Sensory Properties of Dehydrated Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) During Storage

Author: Lorina A. Galvez


One of the problems of the dehydrated jackfruit produced in Visayas State University (VSU) is the development of browning after 1 to 2 months of storage. This study was conducted to determine the effects of variety and sulfite on the sensory and microbial quality of the product during 4 months storage at ambient temperature. Two jackfruit varieties (AES-1 and AES-2) and two levels of sulfite (0.1% & 0.2% w/w) were used in the study. Treatments were laid out in CRD with three replications. Data were subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of significance employing SPSS version 16. The treatments means were compared using Tukey’s HSD (Honestly Significant Difference at 5% level) and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test (5% level). All of the analyses were carried out in triplicate sample.
Longer storage caused the deterioration of the product color due to browning reaction. Slow occurrence of the sensorial changes occurred which can be attributed to the variety and sulfite levels. Sulfiting stabilized the microbial count (aerobic microorganisms or the molds). As the storage time was lengthened, the microbial count generally increased after the fourth month of storage; however, the microbial counts were still within the acceptable limits. The absence of E. coli and Salmonella proved the product to be safe for human consumption until four months of storage.

Keywords : Sensory properties, dehydrated jackfruit, microbial properties, AES-1 and AES-2 varieties

Assessment of Nutritional Potency and Pomological Traits in the Wild and Cultivated Varieties of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae)

Author(s): Salma Suhara Beevy and Noor Muhammed Haseena Bai


Nutrient composition in the fruits of cultivated and wild varieties of M. charantia viz, M. charantia var. charantia and var. muricata were evaluated to prioritize the wild accessions suitable for crop improvement programme. The nutritive value of the varieties were assessed in terms of the quantity of proteins, carbohydrate, vitamins, total sugar, reducing and non-reducing sugar and minerals like Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The wild variety was found superior than the cultivar in terms of their nutrient content. The study recognized MC12, as the elite germplasm with highest concentration of Vit. E, B2, Cu and Ca and the accession MC10 as a rich source of carbohydrate, non-reducing sugar and Vit. B1. The accessions MC2, MC7, and MC15 were superior having higher concentration of protein, Vit. C and reducing sugar respectively. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between fruit traits and nutrient composition. UPGMA dendrogram analysis suggests that the nutritional variation in the accessions was not determined by the fruit and seed morphology. However, a direct relationship between the nutrient contents and the fruit traits viz, fruit weight, length and fruit diameter was observed. The study recommends the accessions like MC12, MC7, MC10, and MC15 with high nutrient composition for bitter gourd breeding programme. The study emphasizes the conservation of the wild species, the rich sources of nutrients for crop improvement programme.

Keywords : fruit traits, intra specific, M. charantia var. charantia, M. charantia var. muricata, nutrient contents.

Egg Albumin Supplementation Decreases Isolation-Induced Aggression in Male White

Author(s): Francis S. Legario1,2* and Maureen Antonette D. Bereber1


There is a need to search for solutions of minimizing aggression so as to minimize violence. The purpose of the study is to determine the effects of different levels of egg albumin supplementation to the aggressive behavior of male white mice (Mus musculus). Specifically, this study aimed to describe aggressive tendencies by isolation-induced fighting of male white mice when fed different levels of egg albumin; determine aggressive behavior in terms of the number of attacks and body scars when fed different levels of egg albumin; and measure dominant-subordinate status when fed different levels of egg albumin. White mice were chosen as test animals since they have homologous genes coding with humans. Furthermore, aggression tends to be more common among male mice than female mice. T-test results showed that there is a significant difference in the aggressive behavior between the treated and untreated mice in all treatments except for Treatment D (negative control) in terms of number of attacks and body scars and a significant difference in all treatments in terms of the dominant-subordinate status. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the number of attacks and the dominant subordinate status. Overall, results showed that egg albumin supplementation reduced aggression in male white mice regardless of the level of egg albumin. It was concretely shown that treatments fed with varied levels of egg albumin significantly alleviated aggressive behavior compared with treatments without egg albumin supplementation.

Keywords : albumin, aggression, tryptophan, serotonin

Potential of Chitosan for the Control of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al

Author(s): Lucia M. Borines1, Rezel M. Sagarino1, Rosario B. Calamba1, Ma. Angelica A. Contioso1,
Jacob Glenn F. Jansalin2 and Candelario L. Calibo2


Bacterial wilt is an important constraint to tomato production. The search for an effective and safe method of managing bacterial wilt is imperative. Chitosan, adeactylated chitin was reported to possess direct antimicrobial property against certain pathogens and is a plant resistance booster. This study was conducted to: evaluate the effectiveness of varying chitosan concentrations and sources against bacterial wilt in vitro and in vivo and compare different application methods in bacterial wilt control. Varying chitosan concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) immersed/dissolved in water, 1% acetic acid, and streptomycin were evaluated against R. solanacearum in laboratory and pot experiments. Three chitosan sources were also evaluated against the pathogen. Different methods of application were compared. Regardless of source, chitosan in water has no direct antimicrobial activity against R.solanacearum but when dissolved 1% acetic acid, it was able to inhibit the bacteria. Inhibition of chitosan/acetic acid was best at 300 ppm and significantly higher than 1% acetic acid alone indicating that its antimicrobial property was enhanced by the acid. Two hundred ppm chitosan/acetic acid-treated plants delayed the onset of disease and produced the lowest percentage infection, lowest disease severity rating, and highest percentage survival in inoculated tomato. The action of 200 ppm chitosan/acetic acid treatment was due to a dual effect, i.e., antimicrobial and as an elicitor of resistance. All application methods were effective in controlling bacterial wilt but one time root dipping to 200 ppm chitosan/acetic acid before transplanting was enough to protect the plants against the disease.

Keywords : Tomato, Bacteria, Wilt, Chitosan, Ralstonia

Population Ecology of the Fiddler Crab Uca spp. in Punta, Baybay City, Leyte

Author(s): Kalvin Jay G. Boregon and Julissah C. Evangelio


A study on the population of the fiddler crabs, Uca spp. was conducted to determine their abundance, density, sex ratio, frequency and distribution pattern in the mangrove area of Punta, Baybay City, Leyte. A total of 126 individual fiddler crabs belonging to three different species were collected in a 6,000m2 mangrove area from September to December, 2 2013. The three fiddler crab species were Uca perplexa, U. triangularis, and U. crassipes. Uca perplexa had the highest density which occurred only in the landward zone while U. triangularis occurred in all three zones (seaward, middle and landward). The sex ratio of U. perplexa population did not deviate from the typical 1:1 ratio while U. triangularis did. In terms of their mean size, males of U. perplexa were significantly different from females while U. triangularis showed no significant size difference between males and females. Both U. perplexa and U. triangularis populations had non-normal overall size frequency distributions which were aggregately distributed. Distribution of U. perplexa population appeared to be influenced by substrate type while U. triangularis was not affected by this parameter.

Keywords : Uca perplexa, Uca triangularis, sex ratio, size frequency distribution, sediment

Physicochemical Properties, Lipid and Fatty Acid Profile of “Batuan” [Garcinia binucao (Blco.) Choisy] Seed Oil

Author(s): Elizabeth S. Quevedo1, Laura J. Pham2, Florinia E. Merca3 and Antonio C. Laurena4


The seed oil of “batuan” [Garcinia binucao (Blco.) Choisy] fruit, an indigenous, lesser known, and with promising economic potential, was characterized to evaluate its quality and potential for product development. Using standard AOAC methods, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography, the physicochemical properties, lipid and fatty acid profile were determined.
Oil yield from “batuan” seeds was high. The extracted oil was yellowish white, soft solid at room temperature. Iodine value, acid value, and peroxide value of the seed oil were low while saponification value was high. Lipid presents in “batuan” seed oil is mostly triglycerides while diglycerides are in low amount. Unsaponifiable matter (<1.0%) was abundant in sterol, squalene and beta-carotene, and minor amount of Vit. A palmitate, and-tocopherols. Stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), and palmitic (C16:0) acids were the major fatty acids while arachidic, linoleic and linolenic acids constitute the minor components. “Batuan” seed oil contained more saturated fatty acids than the unsaturated fatty acids which could be responsible for its being a soft solid at room temperature.
Results of this study show that “batuan” seed oil is of good quality and could be a potential source of valuable oil for food and other industrial applications.

Keywords : Garcinia binucao (Blco.) Choisy, oil, seeds, stearic acid, squalene

Quaternary Vegetation History of the Lower Bengal Basin (India) Inferred from Palaeo-palynological Analysis

Author(s): Payel Roy and Nimai Chandra Barui


Black peat samples deposited in between sandy clay layers were collected from an uncovered profile at Rajarhat,24 Paraganas (N), 20 km extreme North East of the city of Kolkata, (22°34’N, 88°30′ E) West Bengal. The profile resulted from an excavation made during the construction of a multi story building. Palynological investigations of the peat samples revealed a large deposits of pollen grains of mangrove species such as Heritiera, Excoecaria, Rhizophora, Sonneratia, Avicennia, Bruguiera, Nypa Barringtonia, Phoenix paludosa, Aegicerasetc. Pollen grains of grasses, some freshwater plants, as well as fern spores (such as Acrostichum, Pteris, Pteridium and Polypodium) were also recovered in large quantities. All were found from a peat layer formed at a depth of about 5.35m to 6.14m from the surface. The fossil pollen assemblage found indicates the prevalence of a past typical mangrove vegetation, which is presently observed in the Sundarbans region (a mangrove swamps, about 85km south of greater Kolkata). The present study reflects a low lying landscape frequently transgressed by sea water and getting supply of fresh water from rivers. Ecological and edaphic factors such as increase of salinity, submergence, reclamation, flood etc. could have been responsible for any vegetation fluctuations.

Keywords : biostratigraphy, mangrove, palaeo-environment, pollenanalysis