Category Archives: Volume 3 No. 1 (1981)

Farmers’ Participation in the Rice Seed Production Program in Leyte


Author: Basilio A. Dabuet

Abstract

This study presents the experiences and problems encountered by rice seed growers in Leyte., their contributions to agricultural development as well as their degree of participation and level of satisfaction in the rice seed production program in Leyte. Majority of the respondents owned an average seed farm area of 4 ha and produced an average of 99 cav/ha of certified seeds. Most had availed of credit from Institutional sources and 5905 obtained help from hired labor. The average seed disposal per farmer was 130 cav per cropping season, or an average disposal of 34 cav/ha per farmer per season. Three or four visits by the seed inspectors per cropping season were considered adequate by the respondents. While majority (59,) considered seed production to lye quite laborious, they found it rewarding and profitable as certified seeds could command better price than ordinary pal., Generally, the problems encountered by the respondents were minor ones. This explains their high level of satisfaction and high degree of participation in the program. Of the selected variables studied, educational attainment, organizational affiliation, trainings attended, market outlets and problems encountered were significantly related to degree of participation. None of the independent variables was related to level of satisfaction. Likewise, no significant relationship was observed between level of satisfaction and degree of participation rice seed growers.

Keywords : Rice. Seed production. Farmer’s profile. Leyte.

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Susceptibility of Yellow Dwarf Coconut Seedlings to Pestalozzia palmarum Cooke


Author(s): Samuel I. Garcia and Manuel K. Palomar

Abstract

The average number of leaf spots from natural infection was generally lower than that obtained when Yellow Dwarf coconut seedlings were artificially inoculated with spore suspensions of Pestalozzia palmarum Cooke. It was likewise observed that 200 to 300 spores per drop of inoculum produced the highest number of leaf spot among all the treatments at 37 days after inoculation: 50 to 75 spores per drop of fungal suspension was the minimum concentration of P. palmarum and 100 to 150 spores the optimum that can cause disease infection on a susceptible host plant. The severity and the average rate of increase of leaf spot in eve, count was linearly correlated with the inoculum concentration from the first count at 21 days until the ninth count at 37 days after inoculation.

Keywords : Pestalozzia palmarum. Yellow Dwarf coconut. Inoculation method. Gray leaf spot. Inoculum concentration. Symptomatology. Culture. Susceptibility.

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Biology of the Black and Green Leaf Folders of Sweet Potato


Author(s): Dely P. Gapasin and Lina Z. Rebadulla

Abstract

The biology of the black leaf folder, Brachmia sp., and the green leaf folder, Psara hipponalis Walker, considered important defoliators of sweet potato, were studied in the laboratory. The total developmental period of the black leaf folder (20 days) is shorter than the green leaf folder (24 days) and did not vary between sexes. Both species have 5 larval instars. A female laid an average of 44 and 90 eggs/day and the adults lived for 5 and 6 days for black and green leaf folders, respectively. Morphologically, the black leaf folder larva has prominent black and white markings on the thorax and abdomen while the green leaf folder larva is greenish yellow with dark brown head and prothoracic plate and found inside the folder leaf. The adults are about the same size but the black leaf folder moth is grayish black while the green leaf folder is yellowish brown with dark brown markings on its wings. Besides sweet potato, black leaf folder can complete development only on Ipomoea triloba and I. aquatica while the green leaf folder on Ipomoea purpurea, I. aquatic, I. pes-caprae, I. triloba and Mekania macrantha. Brachymeria sp. and Other hymemopterous parasite attack green leaf folder while Macrocentrus sp. an earwig species attack black leaf folder.

Keywords : Sweet potato. Insect biology. Brachmia sp. Psara hipponalis. Defoliator. Development. Morphology. Seasonal abundance. Laboratory experiments. Leaf folders.

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Determination of Palmitic Acid Uptake by the Fat Body of the Madera Roach


Author(s): Franklin Chang, Nelson M. Esguerra and Eduardo A. Macion

Abstract

Uptake of [1 –14C ] palmitic acid by the fat body of female adult Leucophaea maderae was measured in vitro. The fat body free fatty acid fraction showed the highest radioactivity., followed by triglyceride. The other lipid fractions showed low incorporation of label. The turnover of palmitate to triglyceride in the fat body of L. maderae appears to be slower than those reported for other insect species. A method of pre-labeling the fat body with a radioisotope was found satisfactory and reliable.

Keywords : Madera roach. Leucophaea madera. Palmitic acid. Lipid. Fat body. Radioisotope. DPM.

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Application of Acceptable Parameters to Assess and Improve Diets


Author: Lydia A. Gloria

Abstract

Poor quality of protein in copra meal diet was attributed more to poor digestibility than to poor nitrogen retention; in mungbean diet, it was due more to poor nitrogen retention than to poor digestibility. Nitrogen utilization of both diets decreased when protein levels were increased. The copra meal-fish meal mixture greatly increased its nitrogen utilization when diluted with protein, but further improvement was observed when 0.07% methionine was added to the mixture. In mungbean diet, supplementation with methionine greatly improved its nitrogen retention. The deleterious effect caused by feeding high level of copra meal may be attributed to high excretion of urea.

Keywords : Protein quality. Copra meal. Mungbean. Diets. Supplementation. Biological parameter. Biochemical parameter. Nitrogen retention. Digestibility.

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Evaluation of Biological and Biochemical Parameters for Protein Quality Assessment


Author: Lydia A. Gloria

Abstract

Biological and biochemical parameters were evaluated to assess protein quality. Some of the parameters are already well-established such as true digestibility, biological value and net protein utilization; others are still being used tentatively such as total urine nitrogen (NI), urine urea nitrogen (Nu), ratio of Nu to Nt (nu/Nt), onto urea, serum total protein and liveweight gain; one was devised in the study which is the ratio of retained nitrogen to absorbed nitrogen (Nu/nt). The efficiency of the parameters to evaluate protein quality was studied by using egg albumin, a good quality protein, and zein, a poor quality protein. Both protein sources were incorporated in the diet at different levels. The parameters used gave a clear indication of the quality of the protein studied, although they were Knob affected by the Protein level in the diet and the total protein intake. Standard protein level and protein intake are then suggested as necessary so that the parameters can be more efficiently used as protein quality evaluators.

Keywords : Protein quality. Biological parameter. Biochemical parameter. Egg albumin. Zein. Diets. Assessment.

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Wheat Flour Substitution Using Sweet Potato or Cassava in Some Bread and Snack Items


Author(s): L. S. Palomar, Jovita A. Perez and Generosa L. Pascual

Abstract

Cassava and sweet potato flour were processed and used to substitute wheat flour from 20 to 1003/4 level in some yeast breads (pan de sal and hot rolls); quick breads (paborita, cheese crackers and coconut cookies) and snack items (polvoron, gollorias and doughnut). Cassava and sweet potato flour have a coarser texture than wheat flour; however, cassava flour approximates the color of wheat flour. Cassava flour has almost similar chemical properties as wheat flour except for protein and crude fiber; sweet potato flour differed in protein, texture and color. Preference tests showed that products with root crop flour, except doughnut, were preferred by consumers. Based on cost analysis, root crop flour is a good substitute for wheat flour.

Keywords : Cassava. Cassava flour. Sweet potato. Sweet potato flour. Wheat flour. Composite flours. Substitution. Processing. Bakery products. Analysis. Laboratory tests. Taste panel. Costs.

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Heritability and Expected Gain from Selection for Yield, Weight Loss in Storage and Sprouting in Field Bed of Sweet Potato


Author(s): Florencio A. Saladaga and Teme P. Hernandez

Abstract

True seeds of sweet potato were collected from a sample of genotypes entered in the Master Polycross Nursery at Louisiana State University, grown into seedlings and vegetatively propagated. Frequency distribution and heritability estimates were prepared for yield, weight loss in storage and sprouting in field bed. In general, for all the maternal parents, the distribution of the individual progeny seedlings was skewed to the lower yielding classes. Heritability estimate for yield was low, but with a magnitude of 0.241 which indicates the possibility of selecting (by culling) for yield at a relatively early stage of the screening process. While seedling genotypes within each maternal parent differed (i.e., some had no appreciable weight loss), the genetic variance was negative, thus heritability was negative or zero. Sprouting in field bed also had low genetic variance and, subsequently, lo, heritability. These low heritability values indicate that either the population under study has already attained its potential limit for these two traits or that these traits are largely influenced by the environment.

Keywords : Sweet potato. Plant breeding. Genetic variance. Heritability. Selection. Polycross. Weight loss. Sprout production. Field bed. Louisiana.

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