Category Archives: Volume 25 No. 2 (2003)

Developing a High Value Timber Industry in the Leyte Based on Furniture Production: Future Prospects and Lessons from Experiences in Tropical Australia


Author(s): John Herbohn1, Steve Harrison2 and David Smorfitt3

Abstract

The desirability of and prospects for development of a high-value timber industry in Leyte, Philippines, are examined. Lessons are drawn from extensive research undertaken in tropical north Queensland, Australia, including studies of landholder attitudes; sawmilling activities, including the role of portable sawmills; potential financial returns from plantations of high value rainforest cabinet timbers; and marketing studies involving cabinet-makers and consumers. These studies suggest the need to demonstrate that money can be made from smallholder and community plantations, to have harvest security, to convince politicians and public about benefits of forestry, to be able to develop effective programs that target particular groups, and to develop a range of financing arrangements (e.g. carbon credits, institutional and venture capital) that allow early cash flows. Issues associated with the development of a furniture industry in the Leyte are discussed in the light of these research experiences.

Keywords : forest industry development; forestry financial models: sawmills; value chains: small-scale forestry.

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Property Rights Issues in Small-scale Forestry in the Philippines


Author: Steve Harrison

Abstract

Weak or inappropriate property rights can be a major impediment to efficient and sustainable use of natural resources. The system of property rights governs what landholders can do with their land and other resources and the incentives which exist to undertake tree growing activities. In the forest sector, the property rights regime is conditioned largely by the forest administration infrastructure, forestry funding arrangements and environmental policy. Often measures to make forestry more sustainable have unintended adverse impacts on the property rights of tree growers. In the Philippines (as in other countries, both developed and developing), various anomalies in property rights in forestry are often noted. These tend to discriminate against plantation forestry and, in particular, small-scale forestry. Reform of property rights in forestry is a challenging task.

Keywords : concept of property; tenure security; harvest and transport rights; transferability.

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Rainforest Reforestation and Biodiversity Benefits: A Case Study from the Australian Wet Tropics


Author(s): Robert Harrison1, Grant Wardell-Johnson2 and Clive McAlpine1

Abstract

This paper examines the effectiveness of a rainforest reforestation program (the Community Rainforest Reforestation Program in north-eastern Queensland, Australia) in providing amenity and biodiversity benefits. This program involved small areas of mainly mixed native timber species on private farmland. Government support was provided for the program, for both timber production and environmental reasons. Survey results reveal that landholders have planted trees, and intend to manage plantations, for diverse reasons, including conservation purposes. Tice plantings appear to be of environmental value, forming wildlife corridors and buffer areas. In this respect, the CRRP has achieved a limited success in meeting the implicit goal of biological conservation.

Keywords : biodiversity restoration; fragmented vegetation; community reforestation; landholder survey; wildlife population changes.

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A Model to Help People to Realize Sustainable Forestry Futures


Author(s): Jerome K. Vanclay1, Ravi Prabhu2, Janice P. Susaya1, Robert Muetzelfeldt3 and Mandy Haggith4

Abstract

People usually know how they want their situation to change to secure a better future — but they do not always know how to change their situation. Initiatives intended to secure a better future do not always work as intended, and may have unintended side effects. Computer models can help advocates explore consequences of proposed initiatives, so they can make informed selections of alternatives, secure in the knowledge that consequences have been thoroughly investigated. By encouraging people to explore scenarios, models empower people to be more innovative and less dependent on technocrats. Models also enable planners to experiment with policy without risks to people or to the environment. Emerging software solves many technical limitations, but the real issue is not software, but rather the provision of a supportive framework within which people can express and experiment with ideas. FLORES, the Forest Land Oriented Resource Envisioning System, provides such a framework to stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers. practitioners and clients. Two recent workshops have demonstrated the feasibility of FLORES, one of which provides the subject matter for a forthcoming issue of Small–scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy. However, FLORES is not about software; it is about providing the means to explore the consequences of alternative scenarios. Ultimately, FLORES is not a physical package, but an association of users and the interactions they have amongst themselves, and with the people involved in policy-making. By promoting this emerging network and providing technical support we encourage more people, especially those from developing countries, to influence the development of FLORES and the issues that can be explored within it.

Keywords : Decision support system; adaptive modelling; land-use alternatives: policy analysis; envisioning; forest frontier.

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Philippine Forest Ecosystems and Climate Change: Carbon stocks, Rate of Sequestration and the Kyoto Protocol


Author(s): Rodel D. Lasco and Florencia B. Pulhin

Abstract

Tropical forests have a valuable role in relation to climate change, being a source and sink of carbon. This paper reviews the state of knowledge on carbon stocks and rate of sequestration of various forest ecosystems in the Philippines. Carbon density ranges widely from less than 5 tilia to more than 200 Vila in the following order: old growth forests > secondary forest > mossy forest > mangrove forest > pine forest > tree plantation > agroforestry farm > brushlands > grasslands. Carbon sequestration ranges from less than 1 t/ha/yr in natural forests to more than 15 Vila/yr in some tree plantations. Land-use change and forestry make an important contribution in the national emissions and sinks. It is estimated that Philippine forest lands are a net sink of greenhouse gasses (GHG) absorbing 107 Mt CO2 equivalent in 1998, about equal to the total Philippine GHG emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM) presents a clear opportunity for Philippine forestry, if the threats are properly addressed.

Keywords : tropical forests: carbon budget; carbon sequestration; Kyoto Protocol.

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Value-adding in Forestry at the Farm and Community Level


Author: Dennis P. Peque

Abstract

Subsistence farmers have long recognized the importance of trees as a source of many goods, services and amenities. However, central to tree growing activities should be the development of opportunities for farmers to generate and improve their income by value adding. A variety of value-adding activities are undertaken in small-scale forestry in Leyte. This includes production of fuelwood, charcoal, lumber, furniture and novelty items. By increasing forestry revenue, value-adding encourages smallholders to plant more trees. Community forestry, as an alternative to individually owned forestry, allows smallholders to work together to increase productivity and creates opportunities for value adding. Since smallholders lack resources and other needed technical knowledge, the role of support organizations such as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) are crucial for value-adding. These agencies can help smallholders in the processing of papers to make the venture legal and in establishing market linkage for the product that they will produce.

Keywords : value-adding; smallholder forestry; product diversification; fuelwood; cooperatives.

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Empowering People’s Organizations in Community Based Forest Management in the Philippines: The Community Organizing Role of NGOs


Author(s): Stephen Duthy1 and Bernadette Bolo-Duthy2

Abstract

Underlying community based forest management is the belief that communities are in the best position to manage and protect forests if they participate in decision-making on the sustainable use of forest resources. For several decades the development approach in the Philippines has been to empower People’s Organizations (P0) through the use of community organizers employed by development oriented NGOs. Lack of attention to community organizing and social preparation, however, has been identified as a factors hindering forest protection. In less developed countries the effective reach of government is limited. The relationship between NGOs and POs therefore acts as a dual span bridge to the community relying on the development and training skills of NGO staff and on the ability of the PO to mobilize its membership to perform on-ground works. Analysis of case studies of the use of community organizing at Mt Makiling and Mt Banahaw has demonstrated that the capacity for communities to be involved in community forestry is a prerequisite to effective participation.

Keywords : community organizing: capacity building; community development; participatory forest management; NGOs.

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Socio-economic Research Techniques in Non-industrial Forestry


Author: Steve Harrison

Abstract

This paper examines some of the techniques which are applicable in socio-economic research in forestry, with particular emphasis on non-industrial forestry in a developing country context. A variety of quantitative techniques is found to have relevance. The techniques may be grouped as data collection and analysis, physical and financial modeling. valuation and reporting methods, and policy analysis. In general, social cost-benefit analysis provides an appropriate framework within which these techniques can be viewed. In some applications, alternative techniques are available, and factors influencing the appropriate choice can be identified.

Keywords : policy questions; data collection and analysis; multicriteria analysis; cost-benefit analysis; environmental valuation.

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