Category Archives: Volume 25 No. 1 (2003)

Landholder Types in Leyte, the Philippines: A Review of Literature and Proposals for Methods to Extend Understanding


Author(s): Nicholas F. Emtage

Abstract

Landholder typologies are potentially useful to assist in the design and administration of tree planting support programs. This paper reports a review of relevant literature on the nature of landholder types in regard to tree planting and upland farming in the Philippines, and some preliminary impressions of landholder types in several communities in Leyte on the basis of information obtained from visits to these communities in 2001. The potential research methodology to examine landholder attitudes and explore for the presence of distinct groups with respect to these attitudes in Leyte is examined.

Keywords : landholder typologies; Kaingin farming; socioeconomic circumstances; rice self-sufficiency.

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Some Research Experiences in Socio-economics of Non-industrial Forestry in the Philippines


Author(s): Steve Harrison1, Tyron Venn1, John Herbohn2, Peter Dart3 and Sharon Brown4

Abstract

This paper examines the findings of a socio-economic research project carried out to examine the financial performance, adoption progress and impediments to adoption, of a range of Australian tree species in the Philippines. This ACIAR-supported project was an extension of research into transfer of Australian tree production technologies to the Philippines by Australian scientists, with a focus on trees from the genera Eucalyptus. Acacia, Grevillea and Casuarina. The socio-economic research indicated that financial performance of acacias, though perhaps not other Australian species, is comparable with that of traditional species such as gmelina and mahogany. Some uncertainty exists with regard to likely growth and financial performance of eucalypts because site index data are not available, and while early stand growth has been impressive there was a lack of data on which to model later growth. A wide variety of potential impediments to adoption of farm and community forestry, and Australian species in particular, was noted.

Keywords : Australian tree species; tree production technologies; stand yield modeling; financial performance.

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The One-minute Modeller: An Introduction to Simile


Author(s): Jerome K. Vanclay

Abstract

The Simile programming language provides a powerful and relatively easy to use medium for developing models and simulating the behaviour of forestry systems. This is a highly visual approach to modelling, in that the flow diagram is in effect the computer program. This paper provides a simple introduction to use of the Simile programming language for potential users, which has been developed to provide an initial understanding of the programming features and steps in classes and for workshops.

Keywords : forestry modeling; visual simulation; submodels; screen icons; lollipop diagram.

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Preferred Native Tree Species for Smallholder Forestry in Leyte


Author(s): Eduardo O. Mangaoang and Arturo E. Pasa

Abstract

This paper reports on the research experiences of students and faculty members at the College of Forestry of Leyte State University on smallholders’ preferred tree species for smallholder forestry in Leyte, Philippines. Results reveal that farmers have high preference for ‘premium’ native trees, i.e. those with high quality by-products and multiplicity of uses, both economic and ecological. High ratings were also recorded for three common exotic tree species, namely Gmelina.arborea, Swietenia macrophylla and Leucaena leucocephala. The smallholders’ desire to raise native trees, however, is inhibited by factors such as tenure security and insufficient knowledge and skills on propagation, management and protection. Other inhibiting factors include limited access to technical and other support services, and inadequate knowledge and understanding of government policies related to cultivation, harvesting and marketing of these trees.

Keywords : native tree species; smallholder forestry; preferences.

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The Philippines’ Community-Based Resource Management Program


Author: Willie Oita

Abstract

Community-Based Resource Management is a $US50M project financed by the World Bank and the Philippine government, designed to address the twin objectives of ameliorating rural poverty and resource degradation through support for locally generated and implemented natural resource management projects. The project aims to strengthen the capacity of local communities in forest, upland and near-shore areas, and that of Local Government Units (LGUs) to plan and implement investments for community-initiated development projects to reduce poverty and environmental degradation. Coordination is provided by the Department of Finance, with projects implemented through the LGUs. Loan and grant assistance are provided to LGUs, the balance of which depends on the financial class of the LGU applicant.

Keywords : community-based reforestation; upland resources; innovative financing mix; World Bank; project cycle.

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Establishing a Reforestation Baseline in Community Forestry in Leyte


Author: John Herbohn

Abstract

This paper discusses the collection of information to establish a reforestation baseline in community forestry in Leyte. Philippines. The paper outlines how baseline information about current nursery practices, including an assessment of seedling availability and quality and current levels of tree planting, will be used to assess the testing of intervention measures designed to overcome impediments identified as part of an ongoing research project.

Keywords : baseline study; forestry nurseries; community tree nurseries; social baseline., seedling availability.

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Tree Planting Progress at Four Community Forestry Sites In Leyte: Some Observations and Lessons Learned


Author(s): Eduardo O. Mangaoang1 and Steve Harrison2

Abstract

This paper critically reviews tree farming and community forestry in four municipalities in Leyte. It examines problems and issues experienced by the local people in communities with respect to forestry, and makes observations about the progress of tree planting in both community and farm forestry. Field visits and discussions with local people, Local Government Unit (LGU) officials and Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR) personnel were undertaken in each of the four sites. Some lessons are drawn and problems identified with respect to the development of community and farm forestry. Planting progress has been relatively slow at the four sites, and a number of difficulties have been apparent in relation to physical stand performance and property rights of growers. The importance of organizational assistance, livelihood support and availability of seedlings of suitable species is apparent. Regardless of the difficulties, a high level of enthusiasm exists for forestry projects, and the potential community benefits are considerable.

Keywords : tree farming; community forestry.

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