Category Archives: Volume 21 (1999) (Special Issue)

Socio-economic conditions of selected resident of Apid, Mahaba and Digyo Islands, Inopocan, Leyte, Philippines


Author(s): Ma. Salome B. Bulayog1, Ma. Teresa M. Oliva2, Fe J. Dagoy2, Buenavintura B. Dargantes4,
Isabel M. Schaedle5, Elisita R. Ponce6 and Antonia D. Cabayag7

Abstract

This study describes the socio-economic conditions of selected households in the islands of Apid, Digyo and Mahaba. The data for this study are very limited considering the very short time spent in data collection.
Age of the respondents averaged 39.37 years and most of them attained only the primary level of education. The average number of children is five. Fishing is the main source of livelihood but the people are also engaged in other activities to augment their income. Among these activities are stripping and weaving pandan leave into mats, fish trading, boat construction, animal raising and farming. Farming is not widely practiced since the land is not fit for growing agricultural crops. Farm produce is barely enough for their consumption.
A variety of fish species is caught throughout the year. Daily catch ranges from 5 to 25kg. Quantity of catch depends largely on the season and climate. Some species are abundant during certain periods of the year like squids which is generally abundant during the month of May and June. The respondents said that the lack of capital to buy inputs have forced them to avail of the credit extended to them by the traders within the island. As a consequence, they have to sell their catch at a price dictated by the traders. Another problem mentioned by the fishermen is the encroachment of big commercial fishing boats in the area. The fishermen felt that fishing yield was affected by their presence.
Marine resources in these islands are still abundant. However, with the increase in population and the encroachment of commercial fishing vessels, the problem of overfishing may not be very far. Something should be done to make harvesting of fish and other marine resources sustainable. A policy that would lower fishing efforts would be difficult to implement since fishing in these islands is mostly for subsistence and survival for the fishermen. Forcing fishermen out of their livelihood without an acceptable alternative program will be viewed by many as inequitable and morally unacceptable.

Keywords : biodiversity, fishing effort, marine resources, monsoon, sustainable fishing

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Status of shallow reefs around Apid Island, Inopacan, Leyte, Philippines


Author(s): I.M.P Benliro1, C.I.I Bothe2, K. Sonder2, G. Szinicz3, S.A. Cesar3 and S. Schoppe1

Abstract

A rapid coral reef survey was conducted along selected sites in Apid and Digyo Islands on Aug. 30-31, 1999. Transect lines (20 meter) were laid in different sites in the reefs. The assessment revealed that the entire reef area is in a critical status. The combined effects of previous destructive fishing practices, over-exploitation, El Nino phenomenon and a Crown-of-Thorns seastar population outbreak resulted in severe damage to the reef. Dead corals were ubiquitous. Marine resources inside the protected marine sanctuary were higher and in better condition compared to areas which were open for exploitation. Ecological awareness was indicated by the absence of any trash in the reefs and the continuing effort of the community to maintain the marine sanctuary.

Keywords : coral reef. Cuatro Islas. destruction.

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Freshwater investigations on Apid Island, Inopacan, Leyte, Philippines: results of lithotelmic investigation


Author(s): Hendrik Freitag1, Erika Zahn2 and Friedhelm Goeltenboth2

Abstract

Preliminary investigations of some of the numerous lithotelmata found in the limestone area of Apid Island off the west coast of Leyte revealed the following factshow

– The majority of these lithotelmata are semi-permanent.
– They are partly used for human activities like washing, influencing both the pH values and the biocoenosis.
– pH values under undisturbed conditions range from 7 and 8.
– Water temperature rises and falls according to the diurnal cycle, so does the pH in those lithotelmata invested with filamentous algae of the genus Oedogonium.
– Neighboring lithotelmata show very different faunal composition including species usually showing long developmental cycles like dragonflies.
– Ostrocodes were the most abundant single species group found.
– The main faunal component of a phytotelmata in the form of a water-filled coconut shell were neustic collembola.

Keywords : coral islands. freshwater. lithotelmata. Philippines. phytotelmata

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Agricultural land use system on Apid Island, Inopacan, Leyte, Philippines


Author(s): Ruth O. Escasinas1 and Joachim Sauerborn2

Abstract

Characterization of agricultural land use systems on Apid Island was done in order to understand the agroecosystem and its impact on the ecology of the Island. Of the total land area only a small portion is planted to cash crops. Pandanus sp. Seems to be the major cash crop on the island. It occupies the largest area.
Multi-storey cropping system is a dominant cropping system on the island. Coconut is grown in combination with breadfruit, banana, pandanus and cassava showing that the land is used to a maximum resembling the ecosystem of the rainforest.
Diverse crop species could be observed in the site. People grow food crops, fruit crops, fruit trees, sugar and spice crops as well as medicinal plants for home consumption.

Keywords : Apid island. diverse crop species. land use system. multi-storey cropping.

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The terrestrial fauna of Apid Island, Inopacan, Leyte, Philippines


Author(s): Christopher Allgaier1, Frank Schaefer1, Maria Juliet C. Ceniza2 and Konrad Martin1

Abstract

The terrestrial fauna of Apid Island in different types of habitat (mainly agricultural) was studied by sweep-netting of arthropods; hand sampling of species living on the ground and by visual observations. Results showed that the island is relatively species-poor compared to an area of the same size and habitat type on mainland Leyte. This is mainly due to (1) the small size of the island, (2) the lack of running waters, and (3) human activities which have removed most parts of the natural vegetation. As a common tendency, the most abundant faunal groups are those which show a preference for more open and dryer habitats than a tropical rainforest. The most abundant herbivores are grasshoppers, and the most abundant predators are spiders (in all habitat types). Land snails are the common group of species living in the soil, which is explained by the fact that Apid Island is built up of limestone.

Keywords : biodiversity. sweep-net sampling. terrestrial arthropods.

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Flora of Apid Island, Inocapan, Leyte, Philippines


Author(s): Mylene Napiza1, Sibyll Eisenberger2, Jan Grenz3, Gerhard Langenberger4 and Joachim Sauerborn2

Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the floristic composition of Apid Island and describe the plants’ growth habits and life forms. Three ecological “sub-units” were identified and compared using the Index of Similarity.
A total of 105 plant species representing 39 families was found but only 89 were identified to the species level. Most of the plants were therophytes (herbs and grasses) and phanerophytes (trees and shrubs). Ten species adapted to karst or limestone substrates, which is typical in the island, were identified. Commonness of species between sub-units is not remarkable.

Keywords : Apid Island. diversity. flora. growth habit. life form. similarity index

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Geomorphology and soils of Apid Island, Inopacan, Leyte, Philippines


Author(s): Jan Grenz1, Sandra Zukunft2 and Victor B. Asio3

Abstract

The island of Apid was most probably formed during the Upper Pleistocene as a barrier reef resting on volcanic rock. Two main types of soil can be found there: Rendzic Leptosols in the rocky interior and Arenosols on the sandy beach. Soil sample taken on the island showed low nutrient contents and a very low capacity to store plant-available water. Therefore, conditions for agricultural land-use are not very favorable.

Keywords : Apid Island. Ecological properties. Geomorphology. soils.

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