Category Archives: Volume 19 No. 1 (1997)

Development of sweetpotato-based fermented beverage


Author(s): Julie D. Tan and Edna E. Forio

Abstract

The optimum time for fermentation and suitable fermenting container was established for the production of sweetpotato-based fermented beverage. Evaluation of the beverage was done through physicochemical and sensory analyses by trained panelists. The acceptability score in terms of flavor and general acceptability of 8-day fermented beverage was the same as the beverage produced in 12 and 16 days. The beverage that was fermented in glass jars had a fair to good blend of sweet, sour and alcohol taste compared with the beverage0s fermented in clay and plastic jars.
There were comparable amounts of sweetness in flavored and unflavored fermented beverages. In general, the acceptability scores for flavored and unflavored beverages in term of alcohol amount, sourness, sweetness, flavor and general acceptability were the same. The use of either natural fruit or artificial fruit flavoring or both did not cause any significant differences in the quantification of tastes and their corresponding acceptability scores.
Orange-flavored and pineapple-flavored were the most expensive and cheapest fermented beverage, respectively. Unflavored beverage was the cheapest of all the fermented beverages produced.

Keywords : Aspergillus awamori. Aspergillus kawachii. Microbial starter. Physicochemical characteristics. Sensory characteristics. Sweetpotato-based fermented beverage.

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Quality evaluation of yoghurt from peanut milk


Author(s): E.M. Masamayor and R.D. Lauzon

Abstract

Peanut milk is white with a “nutty” odor. Other physico-chemical properties included a pH of 6.53, viscosity of 10cps, 7% TSS, 1.57% TTA, 5.52% protein, 16.42% fat and 72.4% moisture.
Substituting commercial milk with peanut milk does not significantly alter the sensory qualities of yoghurt. Sensory qualities of peanut yoghurt can be improved with the incorporation of mango flavor. Flavored peanut yoghurt contains 4.42% protein, 10.6% fat and 81.19% moisture. It has a pH of 4.12, viscosity of 200 cps, 18% TTS and 12.21% TTA. Out of 74 consumers, 41.89% liked the developed product from peanut milk.

Keywords : Cow’s milk. Fermentation. Incubation. Peanut milk. Yoghurt.

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Development and improvement of sweetpotato pickles


Author(s): Julie D. Tan and Edna E. Forio

Abstract

The suitability of sweetpotato for pickling was investigated. The use of law salt (LS) and high salt (H) was tried in the curing process. LS was found to be an effective method for curing sweetpotato. This process was further improved by heat and chemical treatments and reduction of curing time from 11 wks to 6 days was realized. Blanching was found to contribute a profound improvement on the quality of sweetpotato. The starchiness of pickle was greatly reduced through heat treatment before curing. The reduction of curing time still favored the production of relatively higher amount of acid which is necessary for the souring process.
The sweet-type Jamaica Sweet-mixed and Spread Relish pickles, were found to be more acceptable than the sour-type Genuine Dill pickles.

Keywords : Genuine dill pickles. High and low salt curing. Jamaica sweet-mixed. Sweetpotato pickles. Spread relish.

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Root development in sweetpotato stem cuttings as influenced by pre-planting practices


Author(s): J.R. Pardales, Jr. and C.B. Esquibel

Abstract

The effect of selected cultural practices on the adventitious root development in the stem cuttings of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was investigated through pot experiments. Storing apical stem cuttings for at least 3 days under ambient condition markedly increased the number and total length of the adventitious roots (ARs) and the number of the first order lateral roots (LRs) per plant. Variety had no significant influence on the number and elongation of the ARs except that VSP-4 produced notably more first order LRs than VSP-2. The number of nodes buried in the soil at planting did not have significant effect on the production and elongation of the ARs and first order LRs. However, the results showed that the fewer the number of nodes buried at planting, the longer was the length of the ARs and the greater was the number of the first order LRs. Application of fertilizer had no positive effect on the same root system components while water application markedly influenced only the elongation of the ARs. Apical stem cuttings supported significantly greater AR elongation and first order LR formation than basal cuttings. Stem cuttings with leaves intact produced significantly greater number and length of ARs and number of first order LRs than cutting in which the leaves were removed before planting.

Keywords : Adventitious roots. Apical Stem cuttings. First order lateral roots. Planting practices. Sweetpotato.

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Effect of shading on mango (Mangifera indica L.) seedling stocks grown in different potting media


Author(s): M.L.A Dioquino, E.R. Alcober and A.D. Ramos

Abstract

Shading (80% reduction of full sunlight) did not significantly influence the early growth of mango seedlings (var. Carabao) grown in six potting media preparations. Potting media, however, significantly affected the stem height and diameter, leaf number and size and seedling vigor. Seedlings grown in pure garden soil and those in rice hull charcoal- amended potting media were the least vigorous. Incorporation of undecomposed sawdust to garden soil in equal proportion depressed the early growth of mango seedlings. Interaction effect of shading and potting medium on the early growth of mango seedling was not significant.

Keywords : Mango. Potting media. Seedling stocks. Shading.

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Germination and emergence of fresh and aged sweet pepper (Capsicum anuum L.) seed as influenced by osmoconditioning treatments


Author(s): N.L. Beronilla and M.T. Diputado, Jr.

Abstract

Osmoconditioning using polyethylene glycol (PEG) ‘6000’ solution restored the germination capacity of sweet pepper seeds subjected to accelerated ageing treatment to the level of the germination time and speed of germination capacity of fresh seeds. It also enhanced uniformity of germination time and speed of germination and seedling emergence of the aged seeds. In fresh seeds, osmocoonditioning did not further improve germination percentage but enhanced uniformity and rate of seed germination and seedling emergence. It caused development of taller, more vigorous and heavier seedling in both fresh and aged seeds.
The optimum osmotic potential of the PEG solution was -4 bars. Pretreatment duration of 8 days proved to be more effective than just 4 days.

Keywords : Accelerated ageing. Osmoconditioning. Osmotic potential. Polyethylene glycol (PEG). Sweet pepper.

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In vitro propagation of citrus maxima (Burm) Merr.


Author(s): Marilyn M. Belarmino and Darlyn B. Posas

Abstract

A system for in vitro propagation of pummelo or Citrus maxima (Burm) Merr. Was established using shoot tip and single-node stem segment taken from young seedlings. The procedure involved the initiation of shoots from explant tissue, followed by shoot proliferation, >in vitro rooting, and finally, hardening of plantlets and potting out in soil. The agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 30 g/L sucrose and supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L IBA and 40 mg/L adenine (MSP medium) was optimum. Eight-week-old shoots efficiently produced roots in agar-solidified MS medium containing 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L IBA compared with 4-wk-old shoots, indicating the importance of an adequate shoot growth prior to root induction. Using this system, 126 transplantable plantlets and 494 6-wk-old shoots can be produced from one nodal explant in a 4-month micropropagation cycle. One shoot tip explant can produce 26 transplantable plantlets and 50 6-wk-old shoots after 4 months.

Keywords : Citrus. Micropropagation Nodal explant Plantlet. Pumello. Shoot tip.

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A review of upland agriculture, population pressure and environmental degradation in the Philippines


Author: Victor B. Asio

Abstract

Upland agriculture in the Philippines, which started in the Neolithic Age, has evolved from an environmentally-sound traditional shifting cultivation into a destructive form of agriculture. Population which increased from about 7 million at the turn of the century to 70 million at present, is considered as a major factor behind this change in form and extent of upland agriculture resulting in the degradation of the country’s bio-physical environment. It is believed that the key to solving this ecological problem rests heavily on reduced population pressure, sound environmental management strategies, alternative livelihood for upland farmers and appropriate technologies that would suit the conditions in the uplands.

Keywords : Environmental degradation. Land use. Pollution. Population. Pressure. Soil degradation. Upland agriculture.

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