Category Archives: Volume 16 No. 3 (1994) (Special Issue on Tropical Ecology)

Changing the traditional land use system of the world renowned Ifugao rice terraces


Author(s): Josef Margraf and Paciencia P. Milan

Abstract

The rice terraces in the mountains of Northern Luzon are an ecologically balanced agricultural system developed by the Ifugao cultural communities. It is closely connected to swiddens and forests, and intensively interrelated to the social life of the Ifugaos. Very soon, this ecosystem will be changed by modern agricultural technologies and social developments. Therefore, the status quo was investigated to maintain the knowledge of the complex interrelations within this system, which could provide positive impulses to similar agroecosystems in tropical mountain areas. Occurring changes and damages of the ecosystem and possible solutions for conflicting problems are discussed.

Keywords : Traditional land use, pedictable changes, subecosystems, rice terraces, Ifugao

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Income and expenditure patterns of vegetable cooperators


Author(s): Fe J. Dagoy and Luz Sandra E. Racho

Abstract

Generally, the household income of the respondents was relatively low. The household income came from rice production, salaries and wages which included earnings from live-in sons and daughters, those given by relatives and neighbors which included cash or in kind (poultry, livestock, vegetables, etc). The average monthly income was P2,538.55 with monthly disposable income of P2,025.27.
Average monthly living expenditure was P2,738.40. Expenditures were distributed to non-durable and durable goods, fanning expenses and miscellaneous expenses. Non-durable goods constituted the highest share of the total expenditures.
Low income families allocated a large fraction of it for basic goods while high income families had only lesser fraction of the incomes allocated to basic consumption goods. The major problems of the households in relation to their income and expenditure patterns were insufficiency of income, high cost of basic commodities, and low salary/wage rate.

Keywords : Income, expenditure, budget, disposable income, consumption

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Flora associated with sweetpotato on Leyte island, Philippines


Author(s): Renate Klee and Werner Koch

Abstract

To characterize the flora associated with sweetpotato on Leyte island, Philippines, investigations were done in 14 sweetpotato fields and 9 fallows bordering the studied fields. The fallows were chosen to find out whether the bordering vegetation influenced the flora in sweetpotato fields. The studied sweetpotato fields and fallows were localized in three different sites which were mainly characterized by diverse vegetation types. Comparisons between the observed plant species and the three sites were done. Altogether, 215 different plant species were found in both the studied sweet potato fields and the fallows. In the sweet potato fields; 138 weed species could be identified, and 161 plant species (including 18 crop plants) were found in the fallows. To characterize the plant communities in the three sites, the registered plant species were summarized to diverse groups of vegetation.

Keywords : Leyte island, Philippines, sweetpotato, weeds, fallow, vegetation

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Bagalunga (Melia dubia Cav.): An indigenous fast-growing multipurpose tree species in Eastern Visayas, Philippines


Author(s): Edilberto E. Nasayao, Loida Z. Nasayao, Marulen A. Zara and Edilberto V. Ulep

Abstract

This study was conducted through site surveys and interviews. Melia dubia Cav. belongs to family Meliaceae and is found out to be indigenously growing in Eastern Visayas, Philippines. Commonly named “bagalunga”, M. dubia grows in sites within 10°00′ to 11°30′ north latitude and 124°30′ to 125°15′ east longitude; along beaches, narrow alluvial plains, and in undulating to sloping landscapes with elevation of 5 m to 370 m above sea level. It grows in mixture with shrub and other pioneering tree species in grassland and abandoned clearings that are developing toward a second growth forest: thrives on calcareous and non-calcareous soils that developed from limestone, shale, sandstone and rock materials of igneous origin and recent alluvial deposits; on sand, sandy loam to clay and clay loam soils with poor to fairly rich in OM content. The sites have an (average) annual rainfall of 1666 to 2428 mm more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. In general, local inhabitants use the species for timber production, ecological rehabilitation and agroforestry. Melia dubia is fast-growing and possesses strong potential as a reforestation and agroforestry species.

Keywords : Melia dubia, multipurpose tree, ecology, seed germination, research needs.

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Spatial organization of scincid lizards in Santubong Penin-sula, Sarawak, Borneo


Author: Wolfgang Denzer

Abstract

This paper deals with the spatial organization within an assemblage of seven sympatric skinks from Borneo. The spatial segregation in different habitats as well as possible responses to potential competition of syntopic species is reported. Results from earlier reports are briefly discussed.

Keywords : Reptilia, Scincidae, spatial organization, Sarawak, Borneo

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