Category Archives: Volume 11 Nos. 1 – 4 (1989)

Comparison between action programs implemented by the individual, individuals-grouped-as-on, and the family


Author: Henry Y. Goltiano

Abstract

This study determined which action program grouping was more effective. Results showed that action programs formulated by families were implemented more successfully than those formulated by individuals or individuals-grouped-as-one. Respondents claimed that the family was the primary social group which could provide the most needed support in action program implementation. Moreover, the wife was an important pillar of farm activities because respondents that she provided the strongest support and encouragement.

Keywords : Action program. Degree of family involvement. Level of success. Socio-psychological benefits. Overall training benefit.

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Socio-Economic characteristics in the adoptop of cassava technology by small farmers of Kanyakumari and Trivandrum districts of Southern India


Author(s): M. Anantharaman, S. Ramanathan and K.R. Lakshmi

Abstract

Seventy-five small cassava farmers were interviewed to determine their cassava technology adoption level and its relationship with their socio-economic characteristics. Majority of the farmers had low to medium adoption level. Knowledge on cassava technology had the most direct effect on adoption followed by scientific orientation and extension agency contact. On the other hand; age, mass media exposure and farm size had indirect effects through knowledge while education, area under cassava cultivation and risk preference did not influence adoption.

Keywords : Small farmers. Cassava technology. Adoption. Socio-economic characteristics. Path analysis.

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Cost and Return Analysis of various sweet potato varieties/cultivars


Author(s): Nerelito P. Pascual and Magdalena S. Laguna

Abstract

The high yielding varieties/cultivars used in four experimental stations were BNAS-51, Catanduanes 3, Daja, I8-328, I8-498, Kabiti, Kadja, Kinabakab, Lo-323, Tinipay, VSP-1, VSP-2 and VSP-3. Of the 13 entries, VSP-1 (a variety developed by VisCA) yielded 19.7 t/ha. The other VisCA varieties, VSP-2 and VSP-3, yielded 18.6 and 15.3 t/ha, respectively.
Cost-return analysis indicated that VisCa sweet potato (VSP) varieties yielded a return to land and management ranging from P13, 785 to P22, 438 per hectare when grown under experimental field conditions. Under farmers’ field conditions, these varieties yielded a net return ranging from P3, 085 to P7, 927 per hectare only. Compared with other major crops, net returns of VSP varieties grown in farmers’ fields (with no commercial fertilizers) were lower than those obtained from mungo, peanut and lowland rice. However when these varieties were planted in experimental stations (with fertilizer and other inputs), the net returns of the VSP varieties were more than twice of the other crops (rice, mungo and peanut).

Keywords : Cost and return. ViSCA sweet potato (VSPs). Profitability.

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A Study of Informal Credit Services Available to Rice farmers in Saint Bernard, Southern Leyte


Author: Pedro T. Armenia

Abstract

The study revealed that cash and credit in-kind were extended by the informal lenders to many rice and non-rice farmers. The informal lenders employed two major credit arrangements, namely: the butang and plete systems. The butang system requires borrowers to pay one cavan of palay for every cash credit which averaged P74 and payable within 4 months. One variant of the butang scheme is the practice where borrowers pay 2.4 cavans of palays for an average credit worth P204 of fertilizer and pesticides which is payable within 3 months. In the plete credit scheme, the borrowers either pay an average of 2.6 cavans of palay as interest for the P1, 000 cash loan payable within 5 months or an average monthly interest of 12.5%.
In the butang credit arrangement, all types of lenders generally collected more than the total credit to farmers although none of them collected 100% of the total amount due. Under the plete system, the lenders generally could not collect the total interest due during the period covered by the study.

Keywords : Credit arrangements. Informal credit. Rice farmers

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Indigenous Technologies in home processing of root crops: A Survey and Economic Analysis


Author(s): Jose M. Alkuino Jr. and Truong Van Den

Abstract

This study analyzed the income generating potential of Indigenous technologies in processing sweet potato and cassava roots in the rural areas.
Twenty-three indigenous root crop processing products were studied and classified as fried, steamed, baked and dried. Of the 23 products monitored, nine have positive net returns namely maruya, bitsu-bitso, cassava doughnut, pilipit, sinaging, pinisi, cacharon, slice and tinitim. The use of inefficient indigenous tools and equipment, unstandardized product formulation and high labor input greatly contributed to the high production cost, hence the losses in the other products.

Keywords : Economics of processing. Root crops. Indigenous technologies. Sweet potato. Cassava.

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The Impact of Agrarian Reform Program on Resource utilization and Productivity among selected rice farming areas in the Visayas


Author(s): Nerelito P. Pascual, Norma B. Mesorado and Teresita C. Balmes

Abstract

Farmer respondents cultivated an average rice farm area of 1.2 ha in 1972 but this area slightly decreased to 1.15 ha in 1977 and 1.17 ha in 1982. However, their expenditures on fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and other inputs showed an increasing trend. Among the innovative practices employed by farmers especially during the agrarian reform years are the use of tractor in plowing and harrowing, mechanical threshers, rotary weeders, and planting of high yielding varieties. The average yield per hectare before the implementation of the agrarian reform program was only 48.63 cavans. The yield slightly increased to 52.42 cavans in 1977 and 53.01 cavans in 1982. Annual family income also increased from P2, 759 in 1972 to P 7,416 in 1982. Yield was not significantly associated with the agrarian reform program. The determinants of crop yield included crop variety, fertilizer and irrigation. The effect of farm area was negative, indicating that smaller farms had higher yield per unit area than bigger ones.

Keywords : Impact. Agrarian reform. Resource utilization. Productivity. “Before-after” comparative approach.

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Organizational, Management and Utilization of the tabo (Flea Market) among rural communities in Region VIII


Author: Antonia Cecilia Y. Sandoval

Abstract

The study was conducted in 10 municipalities of Region VIII to look generally into the organizational and management set up of the tabo and its uses and effects on the participants and to come up with the baseline data on producers, middlemen and consumers involved in the tabo.
One hundred fifty respondents (50 producers, 50 middlemen and 50 consumers) were interviewed. Generally, the educational attainment of the tabo participants was low. The highest gross annual incomes earned from chief sources (farming and business) were P30, 000, P300, 000 and P50, 000 among producers, middlemen and consumers, respectively. Middlemen had the lowest average length of residence. Producers and consumers were members of organizations which were mostly agricultural in nature.
In addition to the usual way of disposing products in the tabo, farm products were likewise obtained by middlemen direct from the farmers’ farms a day before the scheduled market day or these are delivered by farmers producers to their homes or to designated places on or before tabo days.
A seemingly flexible structure in the tabo had been observed wherein participants were not assigned permanent area to occupy since the kind of commodity they sell greatly determined their place of assignment. However, other vendors displayed their goods in any place within the tabo vicinity.
Uncomfortable conditions such as lack of sheds to protect the tabo participants from the sun and rain during the selling and buying process was reported as the foremost problem encountered.
Husbands were usually the tabo initiator among producer- and middle-men-respondents. The interaction observed among tabo participants is at a relatively depersonalized and business-like level. Vegetables, root crops, cereals, fruits and tobacco were highly saleable. The big number of customers who flocked to the tabo motivated the producer and middleman vendors to utilize it.
The much lower prices is the tabo than in the public market enabled the consumer-respondents to accumulate some savings. Hence, the tabo had fulfilled some of the socio-economics needs of the individual.

Keywords : Tabo. Organizational structure. Management practices. Social participation. Utilization. Rural communities.

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An Analysis of Interagency Coordination among Government Organizations: A case study of the nutrition program in Leyte


Author: Myrna M. Avila

Abstract

The study involved 14 respondents composed of five regional directors, four provincial heads/incharge, and five municipal level community workers.
Coordination among government organizations was maintained by interorganizational linkages (administrative and direct service linkages). These linkages were manifested through resource exchange/sharing, information exchange, joint activities/programs, written agreement, referrals, follow-up and outreach activities.
Coordination dynamics was further manifested by personal interaction during regular meetings, democratic decision-making process, mutual concern and continuous dialogue and involvement of private agencies.
Coordination was influenced by domain consensus, resource scarcity, lack of alternative resources, frequency of interaction, leadership of coordinator, and directives such as Executive Orders 121 and 285, and Presidential Decree 491 (National Nutrition Council).
Generally, the coordination machinery of the existing Nutrition Program Committee is weak and handicapped by the lack of control over the participating agencies. Formal authority is loosely exercised and each member is not under the authority of the lead agency.

Keywords : Interagency coordination. Nutrition program committee Interorganizational linkages. Lead agency. Coordination dynamics.

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Impact of the Training Program of the Philippine Training Centers for Rural Development on Farmer Modernity


Author(s): Henry Y. Goltiano and Gelia T. Castillo

Abstract

This study assessed the impact of PTC-RD training on farmer modernity. It specifically determined whether or not there were significant differences in modernity among three comparison groups that represented a continuum of training experience: the never-trained, slightly-trained and highly-trained farmers.
There were 61 respondents whose personel, family and occupational charanteristics did not differ significantly. Twenty respondents had never attended a PTC-RD training, 27 were trained only once, and 14 thrice or more.
An interview schedule was developed to gather data and information from the respondents. Based on the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test to difference in means, the three groups of respondents significantly differed in active public participation, efficacy, occupational aspirations, planning valuation, technology valuation and time valuation. The highly-trained respondents proved to be the most modern among the three groups.

Keywords : Modernity. Never-trained farmer. Slightly-trained farmer. Highly-trained farmer. Training program.

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