Category Archives: Volume 1 No. 1 (1979)

Sweet Potato as a Culture Medium Ingredient for Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.


Author(s): Dionisia M. Trigo and M.K. Palomar

Abstract

Suitability of sweet potato as a culture medium ingredient for Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. was studied. S. rolfsii grew in the culture media where sweet potato was used as a substitute for white potato in the preparation of potato-dextrose agar (PDA). The fungus on PDA produced profuse, aerial, and straight mycelia and abundant sclerotia. In cultures with varied proportions of sweet potato as ingredient, mycelial growth was characterized as creeping, branched and scanty to profuse; very few sclerotia were formed. Sweet potato leaves or stems as natural substrate for S. rolfsii supported profuse and aerial mycelial growth; abundant sclerotia were also formed.

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Strength and Failure of Gangnail Connectors


Author: Pedro Adonis D. Compendio

Abstract

Basic resistance of nails to withdrawal and lateral loads was studied to determine the strength and failure of gangnails, a modern type of timber connector basically used for wooden trusses. Two types of gangnails manufactured in the Philippines and used in the experiment differed mainly in plate thickness, tooth size and spacing, tooth type, and number of teeth. Test results showed that the strength of gangnails was governed by the tensile strength of the gangnail plate, the shearing strength of the gangnail tooth, and bearing strength of the wood member. Three types of failure patterns were observed, namely, breaking of the plate, shearing of the teeth, and bearing failure in the wood.

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Effect of Feeding Cobb Broilers at Different Ages with Various Levels of Cono Rice Bran


Author(s): Ma. Evilia Tibon and G. R Gerona

Abstract

Cobb broilers were fed with rations containing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% levels of cono rice bran at different ages (one day, 2, 4, and 6 weeks old) until market age (8 weeks old). Results of the experiment revealed that feed consumption of the birds was not affected by the levels of rice bran nor by the ages when the different levels were fed. Cono rice bran can replace corn at 10% level without marked effect in weight gain. Replacement of corn at higher levels (20-50%) on the broiler rations significantly lowered the mean gain in weight of broilers at 8 weeks. Inspite of the significant weight gained and feed conversion efficiency by birds fed with 0% level (control), the return above feed cost per kg liveweight revealed that birds fed with 30, 40 and 50% cono rice bran gave the highest return above feed cost. Furthermore, rice bran as the main energy source in broiler rations can be fed starting from a day old up to the 8th week without marked effect on the gain in weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion efficiency of the birds.

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Community Newsboard as a Micro-medium for Development


Author: Wolfreda T. Alesna

Abstract

The study was conducted in Igang and San Isidro, both rice farming barrios in Baybay, Leyte, to measure the effectiveness of community newsboard (CN) as a micro-medium for development communication using randomly selected literate respondents. The pretest-posttest-control group design was used. Igang was selected as the treatment barrio and San Isidro as the control. Four of the seven variables (sex, frequency of exposure, perceived relevance of the CN messages and acceptability of the CN as a medium) considered in this study had significant relationships with gain in knowledge. Male respondents had significantly gained more knowledge about the information written on the CN than the female respondents. All the respondents who have read the CN unanimously perceived the CN messages as relevant and also accepted CN as a channel for disseminating farm and other developmental information. They have also significantly gained knowledge about the information written on it.

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Biology and Host Range of the Chinese Grasshopper, Oxya chinensis Thunberg


Author(s): Bimbo T. Mandras and Dely P. Gapasin

Abstract

The biology of the Chinese grasshopper, Oxya chinensis Thunberg, was studied in the laboratory. The eggs are laid in masses inside the gabi petiole with 1-2 egg masses laid at a time. The newly-laid egg is elongate, clear yellow and 3-4 mm in length. Just before hatching, the egg turns grayish or nearly black. Incubation period is from 19-24 days with 79.8% hatchability. The total developmental period for both sexes did not differ, with a mean period of 54.3 and 54.7 days for the male and female, respectively. There are 5 nymphal instars with each stadium lasting from 5.3 to 9.4 days for the second and fifth stadium, respectively. A male to female ratio of 1.36: 1.00 was recorded. Females lived longer than males with a difference of 11.3 days between sexes. A total mortality of 27.8%, which was mainly due to disease, was observed during the nymphal period. Five species of natural enemies were observed to attack the Chinese grasshoper at different stages of development. Aside from taro, which is the preferred host, O. chinensis can complete its development on 8 alternate host plants.

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Group Farming Experiences in Western Leyte, Philippines


Author(s): Adeltrudis C. Tongco and Efrez Saz

Abstract

This study presented the experiences of five selected farmer organizations from Western Leyte and the impact of these organizations on the farming practices and economic life of the members. The 88 respondents who constitute 50% of the members from each organization were selected randomly. Most of the members (72%) joined the farmer organizations because government extension workers recruited them. The rest joined either voluntarily or were influenced by friends. The farmers have generally favorable opinions about their organizations. Sixty-three percent believed that their membership in their organizations enabled them to increase their farm production. Many claimed that they could now easily avail technical assistance and credit. Majority (77%) of the respondents believed that their organizations had strengthened inter-agency cooperation. Many had adopted improved farming practices. The majority felt that their membership in the organization had promoted their stature in the community.

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Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne spp. and Rotylenchulus reniformis on Sweet Potato


Author(s): Ruben M. Gapasin and R.B Valdez

Abstract

The reaction of sweet potato to Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis at varying levels of inoculum showed that as population increases there was a corresponding decrease in root, tuber and top weights. Tuber reduction in pots at initial populations of 20,000 eggs and 5,000 larvae of Meloidogyne spp. and R. reniformis were 47.7, 50.6 and 60.6%, respectively, 4 months after inoculation. Plants were stunted and roots were galled with several egg masses on the surface. Lesions, necroses and rotting were observed. Tubers were cracked, deformed and smaller in size.

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Chemical and Organoleptic Characteristics of Fresh Sausage with Different Levels of Duck Meat


Author: Lutagarda Salares Palomar

Abstract

Composite samples from Pekin ducks were used to compare the acceptability of four sausage formulas using different levels of pork and duck meat and to assess the chemical composition of the different sausage formulas. Significant differences were obtained for moisture, ether extract or crude fat and crude protein; pH and ash contents were essentially similar in all sausage formulas. The higher the amount of backfat and lean meat added, the higher were the ether and protein contents. Formula II, containing 70% duck meat, had the highest score for color while Formula III, containing 60% duck meat, had the highest score for flavor. The proportion of 50% duck meat and 50% pork backfat (Formula IV) received significantly the highest scores in color, flavor, tenderness than other formulations, including the control (70% pork lean + 30% pork fat).

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Culture of the Sweet Potato Scab Fungus (Sphaceloma batatas Saw.)


Author(s): Fredeswinda O. Lao and G.G Divinagracia

Abstract

Various methods were tried to isolate the causal fungus of sweet potato stem and foliage scab. The following isolation techniques were successful: (a) small pieces of diseased tissues from stems and leaves were planted in petri dishes containing either Leonian ‘s, onion or potato dextrose agars and incubated at various temperatures; and, (b) free hand sections of plant tissues through the lesion were transferred on malt, carrot, sweet potato leaf decoction and potato dextrose agar drops on glass slides and kept in a humid atmosphere in petri dishes. The fungus grew well on sweet potato decoction agar, carrot agar, malt agar, yeast extract agar, and oatmeal agar. Its growth was better at 25 and 30 C than at 15 and 20 C on both malt and carrot agars; no growth occurred at 10, 35 and 40 C. Its growth was optimum at pH 6.0 to 8.5 and grew better when exposed to alternate light and dark and continuous light than under natural light and continuous dark. The fungus was induced to produce conidia.

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