Monthly Archives: May 2019

Folk Beliefs and Practices of Bagong (Amorphophallus sp.) Farmers in San Roque, Northern Samar

Author(s): Rhodora A. Bande and Michael Carlo C. Villas


This study investigated the folk beliefs and practices of bagong farmers of San Roque, a coastal town 29 kilometers from Catarman, the capital town of Northern Samar. Going by Spanish sources, initial readings suggest that bagong, a root crop of genus Amorphophallus, has long been cultivated in Samar (Alcina 1668/2005). Unlike in other parts of the country where the plant is primarily utilized for pig feeding, the bagong in San Roque is served during special occasions like Christmas and New Year. These occasions are preceded by folk practices unique to the community. This study documents bagong farming and analyzes folk practices, with their attendant narratives and beliefs. Ethnographic observations and interviews were conducted among farmers and townsfolk. Results of the study will have implications on cultural education and cultural policy formulation.

Keywords : Amorphophallus, Bagong production, Folk Beliefs and Practices, San Roque, Samar

Indications of enhanced soil ecosystem functions in polyculture reforested grassland

Author(s): Angelica P. Baldos1* and Roland Rallos2


A lot of work has been doneto evaluate the effects of biodiversity on ecological functions in polyculture plantings. But attention is rarely given to soil ecosystem functions such as carbon (C) sequestration and nitrogen (N) cycling even though they play a critical role in climate regulation through the sequestration and release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study, stable isotopes of C and N were used to investigate if the aforementioned soil ecosystem functions are enhanced under polyculture reforestation by determining the sources of C stored in soil, its rate of incorporation, and the degree of soil N cycling. Twenty-five years after its establishment on an Imperata cylindrica grassland, the tree plantation has contributed 54% of the measured soil organic carbon (SOC) stock at an estimated rate of 2.41Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Larger mean soil 15N values and a more negative 15N enrichment factor (ε = -5.82‰) for the whole 50cm soil depth in tree plantation indicated a better N cycling compared to grassland vegetation. Results show the potential of polyculture reforestation as a sustainable approach to restoring degraded lands and enhancing the role of soil in climate regulation by improving the capacity of soil to store C and to supply N. In addition, information generated from studies like this allow the refinement of mechanisms used in payments for ecosystem services to add more value and provide higher incentives from the ecosystem services provided by polyculture reforestation.

Keywords : stable isotopes, polyculture reforestation, payments for ecosystem services, SOC sequestration, soil nitrogen cycling

Extrapolating the bypass potential of treated Madre de agua (Trichanthera gigantea Nees) leaf meal as protein source in Rumen-Fistulated Brahman Cattle

Author(s): Angelo Francis F. Atole1 and Lolito C. Bestil*


This study assessed the effectiveness of formaldehyde, heat, and tannic acid treatments of madre de agua leaf meal (MALM) in reducing the degradation of dry matter (DMD) and crude protein (CPD) in the rumen for increased supply of bypass protein at the intestinal level. The experiment utilized a rumen-fistulated Brahman bull fed with chopped Napier grass soilage (basal diet) and MALM (test diet) at 70:30 basal:test diet ratio. Nylon bags (porosity of ±53μm) containing the treated MALM were incubated in the rumen for 24, 48 and 72 hours following the “sequential addition” method forin situ degradation measurement.
Results showed that DMD of MALM was significantly reduced by formaldehyde treatment after 24-h and 48-h period of incubation than the untreated. This was followed by tannic acid treatment, though the reduction was significant only after 48-h incubation than the untreated. At 72-h period of incubation, DMD remained to be significantly lowest with formaldehyde treatment than the untreated or heat and tannic acid treatments. A similar pattern of differences in DMD rate (%/h) was observed as that of DMD (%). The CPD of MALM was also significantly reduced with formaldehyde treatment after 24-h incubation than the untreated. At 48-h incubation, all treatment methods showed significant protection of protein in MALM over that of the untreated. At 72h, formaldehyde and heat treatments significantly reduced the CPD of MALM compared to the untreated. A similar pattern of differences in CPD rate (%/h) was observed as that of CPD (%). Among treatment methods, the use of formaldehyde is the best, followed by tannic acid treatment, in achieving rumen bypass and promoting greater amino acid supply at the intestinal level.

Keywords : bypass protein, in situ degradation, cattle, formaldehyde, heat, tannic acid

In vitro molluscicidal activity of wormwood (Artemisia dubia) leaves against Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi

Author(s): Charles Jardian C. Alinsub and Melvin A. Bagot*


There have been many efforts to eradicate the problem of schistosomiasis. One method is to control the growing snail population. This study aimed to determine the molluscicidal activity of wormwood (Artemisia dubia)leaves methanolic extract against adult and juvenile. Using infusion technique, 80% methanol was used as solvent. There were eight treatments used: distilled water (T0(-)1) and 1% methanol (T0(-)2) as negative controls; 0.0002% (2mg/L) niclosamide (T0(+)) as positive control; and 11.121% (T1), 12.478% (T2), 14% (T3), 15.708% (T4) and 17.625% (T5), which were replicated five times with 10 snails per replicate.
Results showed that for adults, the wormwood leaves methanolic extract was not statistically significant with the commercially available molluscicide, although 17.625% (T5) resulted in 82% mortality rate. For juveniles, the different extract concentrations resulted in 98 to 100% mortality, which were comparable to 0.0002% (2mg/L) niclosamide and were considered highly effective based on Reik & Keitz (1954) and European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA). Thus, wormwood leaves methanolic extract has a promising molluscicidal activity against adult snails at a concentration of 17.625%, and at all concentrations for the juvenile snails of O. hupensis quadrasi. The LC50 of the adult and juvenile snails were 14.075% and 10.294%, respectively.
Secondary metabolites that were found positive during the qualitative phytochemical analysis with the extract were tannins, saponins, and terpenoids. The mortality of the snails can be attributed to the bioactivity of the secondary metabolites present that may be acting in combination or individually.

Keywords : Artemisia dubia, wormwood, Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi, molluscicide