Monthly Archives: September 2018

Ecology of Mosquitos in a Philippine Community


Author: Paciencia P. Milan

Abstract

The mosquito fauna of the Visayas State College of Agriculture, Baybay, Leyte was assessed in nine survey stations. In the eight-month survey, 25 species belonging to eight genera were identified. A total of 1,539 mosquitoes were collected; Aedes albopictus was the most abundant and prevalent species. Armigeres and Toxorhynchites were abundant in higher elevation. A high percentage (33%) of mosquito larvae were found in bamboo cups, being the most preferred niche especially by Armigeres. At lower elevation, A. albopictus was found in tin cans. Mosquito distribution was affected by factors such as adaptability of the mosquito to particular niche, elevation and rainfall and availability of preferred breeding niche.

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Biology and Feeding Preference of Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee)


Author(s): L.B. de Pedro and B. Morallo-Rejesus

Abstract

The mean life cycle of tobacco budwom, Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee), reared in the laboratory on artificial diet is 48 days. Copulation started three to four days after emergence. Oviposition started one day after mating with peaks on the fifth to seventh day. A female can lay an average of 219 eggs. Average longevity is nine days for males and 11 days for females. Corn (Zee mays L.), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and “silisilihan” (Physalis angulata L.) were the most preferred hosts for feeding among the 20 plants tested in the laboratory. Tobacco and “silisilihan” were the primary hosts in the field. Larval coloration varied with the host plant fed on.

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Survey and Identification of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Sweet Potato and Cassava


Author: Ruben M. Gapasin

Abstract

A survey of plant parasitic nematodes associated with sweet potato and cassava was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons of 1977 in 30 municipalities in two provinces of Leyte, Philippines. A total of 430 and 275 soil samples were gathered from sweet potato and cassava fields, respectively. Thirteen genera and 22 species of nematodes were identified to be associated with sweet potato: 12 genera and 11 species were associated with cassava. Rotylenchulus, Meloidogyne and Helicotylenchus were the most prevalent and widely distributed genera. Species of Meloidogyne were identified mainly by the perineal patterns of egg-laying females. Other nematodes were identified by their size, position of the vulva, number of Up antes, and head and tail region of adult females. In both sweet potato and cassava, the population density and distribution of the different nematodegenera varied considerably from one locality to another. The differences may be attributed to such factors as soil type,soil moisture and cropping pattern in the area.

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Effect of Defoliation, Runner Removal, and Fertilization on Tuber Yield of Taro


Author(s): Sergio E. Abit and Arturo C. Alferez

Abstract

Three degrees of defoliation (light, medium, and heavy), removal and non-removal of runners and three levels of complete fertilizers were studied on taro cv. Kalpao under lowland conditions. Light defoliation treatment did not affect the leaf area index but increased plant height at maturity, size of tubers, and tuber yield compared to the undefoliated plants, and those subjected to heavy defoliation. Heavy defoliation, on the other hand, resulted in a significant decrease in plant height and tuber yield. The removal of runners from the mother plant markedly enhanced better growth of plants and significantly increased tuber yield as manifested by the development of larger tubers. Tuber yield and other agronomic characters significantly increased with increasing levels of complete fertilizer applied from 50 to 150 kg/ha each of N, P205, and K30. There was an increase of about 2 tons of tubers for every 50 kg/ha of NPK applied.

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Mass Media Habits of Rural People in a Philippine Municipality


Author: G.T Sadsad

Abstract

Two-hundred-fifty rural household members from Lucban, Quezon, Philippines were interviewed to determine their mass media habits, the relationship between selected demographic characteristics and their mass media habits, their attitudes towards the mass media and, on the basis of the findings, draw out guidelines for reaching rural people through the mass media more effectively. Results showed that of the six media, radio was the most availed of. Majority of the respondents owned radio sets and had easy access to movie houses. The respondents spent more time with the broadcast media (radio and TV) than with the printed media (newspapers, comics and magazines). The media were availed of mainly for entertainment. Radio, magazines and newspapers were considered as the most useful sources of information. Radio was the most reliable medium. Among the suggested measures to improve the media were: “lower price,” “lesser advertisements/commercials,” “lesser obscenity in comics and magazines,” “more realistic stories,” “more news (in radio)” and “add more pages/stories.”

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Smoked Product from Duck Meat


Author(s): L.S Palomar and F.C Argañosa

Abstract

Six pork hindlegs, six 3-month old and six 2-year old Pekin ducks (represented as Treatments I, II and III, respectively) were processed into ham and smoked duck meat using the combination injection and dry cure method of curing. Results indicate that the three treatments had essentially similar physical and chemical composition except for pH and ether extract. Treatment III had the highest pH while treatment II had the highest ether extract content. Sensory evaluation made on the products after a seven-day aging period showed significant differences in organoleptic characteristics among the three treatments, except for off-flavor, saltiness, and general acceptability. Color, flavor, tenderness and juiciness scores for smoked duck meat were significantly higher than those for ham. Furthermore, the 3-month-old smoked ducks had the highest scores on most of the organoleptic qualities evaluated including general acceptability. Color and tenderness significantly decreased in smoked duck meats after 3-month storage while the reverse was true in ham. Smoked duck meat and ham had essentially similar sensory qualities except for tenderness regardless of storage. Ham was significantly more tender but had lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. Regardless of species, the processed products stored for one week had significantly higher scores for flavor, tenderness, and general acceptability. However, these processed products were significantly lower in off-flavor, saltiness, and TBA value.

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Behavior and Growth of Pigs in Group Pens Under Different Feeding Systems


Author(s): Teodulo O. Milleza and Teodoro A. Abilay

Abstract

Five different feeding systems were tested on growing-finishing pigs. Behavior patterns on lying down, nibbling, drinking, urinating, defecating, walking, and eating were observed. Production traits such as weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded up to 18 weeks. Only two behavioral patterns were significantly affected by the different feeding systems, i.e., lying down and nibbling. Other behavioral patterns were not affected by the treatments. The production traits that were significantly affected by the different feeding systems were the number of days to reach 90 kg average liveweight and backfat thickness. Animals fed twice daily at 60 min each showed significantly shorter period to reach 90 kg average liveweight and have thinner backfat probe compared to those in other treatments.

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Deep-Bin Drying Characteristics of Unshelled Peanuts


Author(s): Nonilon T. Bulilan and Ernesto P. Lozada

Abstract

Unshelled peanuts were loaded in a deep-bin dryer at a maximum depth of 182.9 cm. The variations in the temperature and moisture content (M.C.) of unshelled peanuts dried at three drying air temperatures and two air flow rates were studied. Large temperature and M.C. gradients were observed between the upper and lower levels of peanuts in the bin during the first 20 hr of drying after which these gradients gradually decreased. The rate of moisture removal of unshelled peanuts was affected by drying air temperature and air velocity. The higher the drying temperature and the air velocity, the shorter was the drying time. Drying peanuts from 40 to 13% moisture (safe for storage) could be accomplished in at least 48 hr with an air temperature of about 43.3°C and an air flow rate of about 0.0052 cubic meter per second (cmps) per 0.028 cubic meter load. Under specific drying conditions, the rate of drying decreased with an increase in the height of the peanut column. Drying peanuts at a depth of 182.9 cm was found most economical (i.e., requires least energy) without much gradient in moisture at the end of the drying process.

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Copra Drying. I. Comparison Between the Recommended Practice and Farmer’s Practice of Splitted-Nut Arrangement Before Dying


Author(s): Ly, Tung and Edilberto A. Hinay

Abstract

Experiment was conducted to compare the recommended practice (RP) of arranging splitted nuts on drying platform before drying with farmers’ practice (FP) in terms of rate and uniformity in moisture reduction of copra. Results indicate that FP is better than RP. Follow-up studies are underway.

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Sweet Potato as a Culture Medium Ingredient for Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.


Author(s): Dionisia M. Trigo and M.K. Palomar

Abstract

Suitability of sweet potato as a culture medium ingredient for Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. was studied. S. rolfsii grew in the culture media where sweet potato was used as a substitute for white potato in the preparation of potato-dextrose agar (PDA). The fungus on PDA produced profuse, aerial, and straight mycelia and abundant sclerotia. In cultures with varied proportions of sweet potato as ingredient, mycelial growth was characterized as creeping, branched and scanty to profuse; very few sclerotia were formed. Sweet potato leaves or stems as natural substrate for S. rolfsii supported profuse and aerial mycelial growth; abundant sclerotia were also formed.

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