Monthly Archives: June 2016

Research Note: Histopathology of Puccinia philippinensis Syd. & P. Syd, A Fungus that Causes Leaf Rust

Author(s): Dindo King M. Donayre1 and Lucille T. Minguez2


Cyperus rotundus L., popularly known as purple nuts edge, mutha or barsanga, is a weed problem in most crop productions due to its prolific underground parts that permit rapid production of multiple young sprouts in the soil. Yield losses in many crops due to competition by C.rotundus range from 35 to 90%. Puccinia philippinensis, on the other hand, is a potential biological control against C. rotundus. Its anatomy of infection inside tissues of the weed, however, is still very much unexplored. This study was conducted to determine the histopathology of leaf rust disease caused by P. philippinensis inside leaf tissues of C. rotundus. Methods such as staining, embedding, and mounting of leaves with structures of the rust fungus were conducted using the standard staining equipment, glasswares, and chemicals. Microscopic examination revealed that the histopathology of rust disease in leaves of C. rotundus started with swelling due to the development of P. philippinensis’s uredinium in the lower epidermis. The event was followed by the development of numerous urediniospores that came from the uredinia. Lower epidermis of C. rotundus was ruptured due to pressing and pushing out of the urediniospores. Urediniospores of P. philippinensis were sub-globose to globose in shape measuring 13 x 16 μ spores-1.

Keywords : Histopathology, Cyperus rotundus L., Puccinia philippinensis, leaf rust, fungi, uredinia, urediniospores

Research Note: Vege-Fish Noodle: Its Quality and Acceptability

Author(s): Roberta D. Lauzon1, Obdulia G. Camooying2 and Naomi G. Petronio2


Three levels (1, 5 and 10%) of fish bone powder and (25, 37.5 and 50%) squash paste were used in the production of vege-fish noodle. Expansion ratio, bulk density, oil absorption, and percent yield were determined. Sensory attributes were evaluated employing Quality Scoring in combination with the 9-Point Hedonic scale. Proximate composition of the most acceptable formulation was analyzed. Consumer evaluation of there commended formulation was assessed and the cost of production was determined.
Levels of fish-bone powder and squash paste have no significant effect on the physical qualities of noodles except percent yield. Sensory attributes of vege-fish noodles were significantly influenced by the incorporation of fish bone powder and squash paste except taste of the product. General acceptability is significantly higher in treatment with highest level of both fish bone powder and squash paste.
The proximate composition of vege-fish noodle is higher than its commercial counterpart except ash. The calcium content of the product is 1,918.08 mg/kg. The vege-fish noodle is acceptable among 70.80% of the consumers. The cost of production is lower with the break-even price of P28.70/350 grams.

Keywords : fish bone powder, squash paste, vege-fishnoodle

Leadership Roles and Management Practices of Educational Managers and Their Relationships to Teachers’ and Students’ Performance

Author: Teresita A. Oducado


A descriptive-correlational research was conducted to determine the extent educational managers in the four state universities in Panay Island portrayed their leadership roles and management practices and its relationship to teachers’ and students’ performance.
Ninety three respondents were classified according to highest educational attainment, position occupied, and length of experience. Questionnaire was used to gather data and Performance Evaluation System (PES) of teachers and passing percentage in Board Examination for students’ performance.
Results were interpreted at 5% level of significance using One-Way Analysis of Variance and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient. Descriptive data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, weighted mean, and standard deviation.
Results showed that majority were doctorate degree holders, first-line managers, and serve their positions for less than ten years. Leadership roles and management practices were rated “to a very large extent.” Only management practices in physical facilities development performed “to a large extent” were although when taken as a whole in the five years of concern were performed they “to a very large extent.”
Teachers’ performance mostly rated Outstanding and a lesser number was rated Very Satisfactory. The passing percentage above the national passing set was by the Philippine Regulation Commission (PRC).
Leadership roles significantly affect teachers’ performance and only leadership and human resource development were related to teachers’ performance. Leadership roles and management practices were not related to students’ performance except in physical facilities development. Only educational attainment was found significantly correlated to teachers’ performance but not to students’ performance.

Keywords : Educational Managers, Leadership Role, Management Practices, Performance Evaluation System

Optimization of Coconut Water Beverage Fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus

Author(s): Eileen B. Bandalan and Lorina A. Galvez


Coconut water is the liquid endosperm of coconut. It is a very nutritious and refreshingly natural beverage but highly perishable. The study aimed to optimize and evaluate the coconut water beverage formulation. A 33 factorial experiment arranged in Central Composite Design with the levels of Lactobacillus acidophilus starter culture (10, 15, 20%), pineapple puree as flavorant (5, 15, 25%) and sugar (10, 20, 30%) as the independent variables was used. The growth pattern of the lactic acid bacteria was monitored for 32 hours following serial dilution and pour plating techniques to determine the fermentation time to produce the beverage. Sensory evaluation was conducted using the 9-point Hedonic scale. Response surface methodology was used to identify the optimum formulation. Microbial growth indicated that 24 hours of incubation at 37°c can produce the fermented beverage. With increased level of Lactobacillus acidophilus starter culture, pineapple puree and sugar, acceptability for the product increased. The optimum formulation has 30% sugar, 20% starter culture and 15% pineapple puree. The product is more nutritious than the unfermented beverage and still acceptable when stored at refrigerated condition for 15 days. Fermentation increased the nutritional values of fresh coconut water.

Keywords : coconut water, fermentation, preservation, sensory evaluation, development

Potential of Some Legume Forages for Rumen Defaunation in Goats

Author(s): Maita L. Aban1 and Lolito C. Bestil2


Plant secondary metabolites appeared to have some effects on rumen fermentation pattern, microbial population, feed intake and digestibility. An experiment was conducted to identify forage species with potential in defaunating (killing protozoal population) the reticulo-rumen in goats. There were five forage species tested: Robles (Cassia siamea), Desmodium (Desmodium heterophyllum), Kakawate (Gliricidia sepium), Centro (Centrosema pubescens) and Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as the control treatment. The forages of the different species were homogenized using a blender to extract the juice.The extracts were then drenched down into the reticulo-rumen of goats through stomach tubing at 1% of their body weight (BW).
Froth analysis for saponin content showed higher values in Robles followed by Ipil-ipil, with Kakawate as the lowest. Ipil-ipil and Robles had comparable defaunating effects with that of the SLS which significantly reduced (p<0.01) the protozoal numbers as compared to the other forages tested. However, Ipil-ipil and Desmodium appeared to have significantly higher (p<0.01) dry matter (DM) intake p of the basal Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) diet as compared to the other forages tested. Bacterial population also decreased but differences among treatments were not significant. Therefore, forage extracts containing high amounts of saponin are effective in reducing protozoal population, comparable to that of SLS. The use of Ipil-ipil forage extract for defaunating the rumen is recommended as it is organic, unlike SLS, and also promotes higher dietary DM intake.

Keywords : Rumen defaunation, saponin-containing forage extracts, goats

Growth Performance of Philippine Native Chicken Fed Diet Supplemented with Varying Levels of Madre de Agua (Trichanthera gigantea Nees) Leaf Meal

Author(s): Clarita E. Morbos1, Dinah M. Espina2 and Lolito C. Bestil2


This study aimed to assess the effects of different levels of Trichanthera gigantea leaf meal (TGLM) supplementation on the growth performance of Philippine Native chickens fed commercial chicken grower ration. A total of 96 three-month old native chickens of two sexes were randomly distributed to the four treatments with 3 replicates and 4 chickens per replicate in a 2 x 4 factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Under semi-confinement system, the dietary treatments consisted of 0, 5, 10, and 15% levels of TGLM supplementation for 13 weeks. Results revealed that cumulative voluntary feed intake (VFI) increased as TGLM supplementation increased, and was significantly highest with 15% level at weeks 10, 11 and 12. Although differences were not significant except at weeks 4 and 7, there was a decreasing trend in cumulative weight gain (CWG) with increasing TGLM level. Average daily gain (ADG) was not significantly affected by varying levels of TGLM supplementation, and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) showed a decreasing trend as TGLM level increased and was only significantly low (p<0.01) with 15% level at week 7. Comparing between sexes, the males were significantly higher than females in all production performance parameters. Therefore, TGLM is palatable but not adequate enough to supply the nutrients needed for a comparable weight gain with that of 0% supplementation, and a 5 10% inclusion in the diet is recommended.

Keywords : Growth , forage leaf meal, native chicken, supplementation

Nutrient Digestibility in Goats Fed With Corn Fodder Supplemented With Palm Kernel Meal

Author(s): Tomas M. Austral Jr. and Sulpecio C. Bantugan


Sixteen (16) goats were randomly distributed to the four dietary treatments to determine their nutrient digestibility which constituted four treatment combinations-commercial cultivar of white corn variety, F1 Taiwanese corn fresh fodder, F1 Taiwanese corn fresh fodder + 0% palm kernel meal in mixed concentrate, and F1 Taiwanese corn fresh fodder + 30% palm kernel meal in mixed concentrate. These were randomized in a complete block design using SPSS Version 11.5 or Windows. Tukey test (Honestly Significant Difference) was used to test the significant differences among treatment means.
Results revealed highly significant differences in terms of dry matter intake, organic matter intake, organic matter digestibility, and apparent digestible energy. Observed results were attributed to better nutrient digestibility due to its rumen fermentation and micro-organism activity. Based on the results of the study, use of corn fodder (65-75 days after planting) and inclusion of 30% palm kernel meal in the diet are recommended since it improved nutrient digestibility, increased feed intake, and energy values compared to use of corn fodder alone. However, it is recommended that optimum level of palm kernel meal usage be further studied to measure the level of efficiency and nutrient digestibility in goats.

Keywords : corn fodder, diet, energy values, feed intake, nutrient digestibility, palm kernel meal

Inbreeding and Mortality Risk in a Captive Population of Mhorr Gazelle (Nanger dama mhorr )

Author(s): Ana Marquiza M. Quilicot and Roswitha Baumung


This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variation and examine the association of inbreeding level on mortality risk (at days 7, 30 and 180 – weaning age) of Mhorr gazelle in captivity for the year 1969–2000 as recorded in the studbook record kept by Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA). The effective number of founders, ancestors and founder genomes was found to be 3.42, 3, and 1.44 for the studied reference population. The reference population is composed of animals which are alive, with known parents and known sex. Animals that are less than 10 years old (based on birth dates up to 2008) with no remarks on its death are considered alive. The population may not have experienced a severe bottleneck, as the values on the effective number of founders and ancestors are almost equal. However, the effective number of founder genomes is low, which demonstrates gene loss due to genetic drift. The mean inbreeding coefficients of the individual, sire and dam were found to be 0.2971 ± 0.1043, 0.2300 ± 0.1141 0.2339 ± 0.1070, respectively. The maximum inbreeding level of the population is 0.5247 (52.47%). This means that parent–offspring or full-sib mating must have happened. The increase in inbreeding level of an individual was found to be significantly associated (p<0.10) with an increase in p mortality risk at day 180 or weaning age. Increasing inbreeding level of sires was found to be significantly associated with increasing risk in mortality at day 30, which indicates that inbred parents also can influence the survival of an offspring. Efficient breeding programs are as important for decreasing mortality in captive populations, as the provision of optimum zoo management practices.

Keywords : genetic diversity, genetic variation, inbreeding, captive population, Mhorr gazelle, mortality

Biophysical Survey of the Hinatuan Enchanted River Underwater Cave System (HERUCS) and its Connecting River, Surigao del Sur, Southern Philippines

Author(s): Ethel C. Wagas1, Dave Anthony Valles1, Cyril Taguba1, Dominic Franco C. Belleza1,Alex Santos2, Bernil Gastardo2, Terence Paul U. Dacles3, Annie G. Diola1, and Danilo T. Dy11


A rapid survey inside the Hinatuan Enchanted River Underwater Cave System (HERUCS) and its connecting river was done to gather baseline data on the biophysical aspects of the cave and river ecosystem. It involved collection of water samples, sediments and macrofauna. Water samples were analyzed for the following parameters, namely: nitrates, phosphates, turbidity, BOD, pH, alkalinity, conductivity and total coliform. Sediment samples were analyzed for total organic matter and grain size. A listing of macrofauna found within the length of the established sampling station was also collected, photo-documented and identified. Water from inside the cave have a pH range of 7.35– 7.39, a BOD of 1.67– 4.00 mg/L, a 16 ppt salinity (at cave entrance), and, nitrate and phosphate values of 0.32 –0.44 mg/L and 0.10–0.52 mg/L, respectively. The mean total coliform count of the water sample from the upstream sampling site was 1,700 MPN/100ml. There were 5 organisms belonging to 4 families recorded from inside the cave while 43 organisms belonging to 9 families were collected from its connecting river. Majority of the macrofauna samples collected were marine to brackish-water species and can be considered accidentals. Although there were no stygobites caught, the possibility of finding new species is high considering the depth of the cave and its many unexplored chambers. Further explorations are highly recommended with the use of mixed gas (i.e., Nitrox) for longer bottom time and more thorough sampling.

Keywords : macrofauna, biophysical monitoring, rapid resource assessment, underwater cave conservation and management

Pigmental Composition at of Freshwater Algae Different Levels of Nitrogen and Physicochemical Parameters of Palhi River, Baybay, Leyte

Author(s): Angelica Joy G. Yu and Felix M. Salas


Freshwater algae are diverse group of organisms which impart important a functions in the ecosystem pertaining to water quality. Cultured freshwater algae were used to determine the effects of nitrogen in different levels on the pigment composition, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids. A three-month study of some physico-chemical properties of Palhi River as well as pigment content of freshwater algae conducted to find correlations on the different parameters was with that of the pigment concentration.
Results of the study showed a strong positive correlation between chlorophyll a and nitrogen level, yet a weak correlation with chlorophyll b and total carotenoids on cultured freshwater algae. Both pH (6.06-6.92) and total dissolved solids (249-397 ppm) of Palhi river are within the standard limits set by DENR, WHO, and USEPA. However, the average total suspended solids (63.0 ppm) and total nitrogen (10.3 ppm) exceeded that of the tolerable limits set by national and international standards. The pigment composition of the fresh water algae showed a strong negative correlation with the nitrogen level in Palhi River which could be attributed to the dynamics, biodiversity and complexities of the river system.

Keywords : culture, DENR, Palhi river, pigment, USEPA, water quality, WHO